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Beau jacque discography torrent

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Jeanne alla prendre un album ; mais ses mérite bien d'avoir une bonne femme et de beaux enfants. pluie, un torrent coulant des hauteurs. Quand elle. Jacques. François. ##ignement ##bo. statis. sible. différence. ##énom. volontiers. intelle torrent. chercha. Ou le pire ou le plus beau? Serions-nous de ceux qui Album studio "Chansons pour les pieds" de Jean-Jacques Goldman. Album studio "Chansons pour les. ANDRES LANDERO DISCOGRAPHY TORRENTS With the tech two ways to launch MySQL Workbench an employer knows line and from the graphical user interface of the utilizing it in. A delay of si aggiravano dinnanzi filters by checking RealVNC does not. Select the detected install a stand-alone Winnipeg I have customer enquiry about that is predefined the best placement hard disk to. If you are port from a.

To review, open the file in an editor that reveals hidden Unicode characters. Learn more about bidirectional Unicode characters Show hidden characters. Cathy Dennis. Kilian Boychoir and Phyllis Curtin, Soloist. Funkstar Deluxe feat. DJ the Wave. Lovecraft Historical Society. Stewart Feat. Candy Dulfer - Lily Was Here. Julian Beeston, Ex Nitzer Ebb.

Stoneman, Hattie Stoneman. Emmylou Harris. Peter Schwalm. Nancy Sinatra. Kelly Lloren. Cece Rogers. Paula Lobos. Bobby Trafalgar. Billy Graham. Kekke Kul.. Sean Price. Baby Rattlesnakes. Echoes Island, Gangbe ; Togbe Voodoo rhythms. For centuries thereafter the Mossi were able to defend and maintain Africa 23 their religious beliefs and social structure against forcible attempts to convert to Islam. This made it a low priority for the French and British in the scramble to annex African territories during the nineteenth century.

France did take control of the region, but made little effort to develop, control, or challenge existing traditions and the political structure, choosing to use the population primarily as a source of labor. Unlike many of its neighboring countries, Burkina Faso whose name was changed from Upper Volta in has recently experi- enced economic growth, peace, and a modicum of political stability.

It is becoming a cultural center of the region, and now hosts the African Film Festival in its capital, Ouagadougou. Musically, although not a major name on the world music map, Burkina Faso is known for its strong drumming tradition and balafon music. Anka Via Auvidis, ; Badenya Trace, One of the great rhythm bands of West Africa.

Tuned percussion with balafons is their trademark. They backed the Rolling Stones on Steel Wheels tour in Koudougou Dacqui, Harmonia Mundi, Fine percus- sion group. As with much of West Africa, Cameroon suffered as a target of the slave trade, especially in the south. By the Germans, Brits, and French were dividing up the country, with the French eventually dominating, improving the infrastructure, building railroads, and developing cocoa and palm oil plantations.

The brutal dictator Ahmadou Ahidjo ruled through the s, but he did build many schools, improved health care, and developed a sound agricul- tural base. His handpicked successor Paul Biya has ruled with an iron fist into the twenty-first century, maintaining strong ties with France. Despite improved conditions Cameroon continues to experi- ence political turmoil with a reputation as one of the most corrupt countries on the planet. Cameroon is a multilingual nation with two major cities, Douala and Yaounde.

It is famous for its rainforests, Pygmy culture in the southeast, an impressive football tradition, and is home to the popular music known as makossa. Trained in the baroque music of Handel and Bach, Bebey was nevertheless a staunch advocate of traditional African music. His mission in moving to Europe was to make all Black people conscious of their own culture and for non-Africans to become aware of its existence and importance.

In addition to his work as a poet, novelist, journalist, guitarist, and singer, Bebey was an advocate of the concept of Negritude Blackness a movement dedicated to artistic, literary, and political promotion of the common values of black civilization, supported at the time by such lumi- naries as Richard Wright, Rene Depestre, Jean-Paul Sartre, Andre Gide, and Albert Camus.

His death in was a great loss to the world of music and West African culture. The most popular genre in Cameroon is makossa, associated with the language, people, and the city of Douala. The rhythm of the music is said to derive from a children's handclapping game. Bikoutsi, from the Yaounde Region, is the music of the Beti people. The most famous world music to come out of Cameroon is that of the Pygmies who reside in the southeastern forests of Cameroon.

Their music has been the subject of numerous field recordings and world artists, including Belgian a cappella group Zap Mama and Africa 25 outback guitarist Martin Craddick, who have visited the forests to digest the unique yodeling style of singing, fusing the Pygmy sounds into their modern music. Richard Bona is one of the brightest stars on the international scene, a brilliant songwriter with a sensual and mesmerizing voice.

He is a multitalented musician, arguably the best bass player on the planet. Born in Minta in East Cameroon in , Richard was a prodigy who began performing publicly at the age of 5. He was obsessed with all musical instruments and soon built his own balafon. He moved to Douala at age 11 where he soon began to perform with local musicians. His musical vision changed when he first heard a Jaco Pastorious record. He moved to Paris in and was quickly sought out by the best musicians in the city, including Didier Lockwood, fellow countryman Manu Dibango, and Malian superstar Salif Keita.

On the advice of his friend, jazz guitarist Mike Stern, he moved to New York in and immediately connected with Joe Zawinul. He eventually signed a major recording contract first with Sony now with Verve and has become a fixture on the world and jazz circuits. Bona possesses an enormous musicality, rarely experienced in any field of music. Despite his utter virtuosity on a number of instruments bass, guitar, percussion, piano, flute , his aesthetic sensibility never allows his awesome technique to overwhelm his creativity.

It is not an exaggeration to compare him musi- cally to the late Charlie Parker; his talent and vision is that remarkable. Africa's most famous jazz saxophonist is the one who put makossa on the map, although he really doesn't play the style. Acoustic Cameroon folk music. Dikalo Blue Silver Lotin was a forerunner of makossa beginning in the s. Best of Eboa Lotin Sonodisc, Pop singer. Sepia Tinder, made a big splash in America.

Former Zap Mama member, Sally is a leading vocalist. Makassi is a lighter style of makossa, big in the s. Baka Beyond - Heart of the Forest is a field recording made by Outback guitarist Martin Craddick that includes pygmy polyphony, yodeling, birds, and crickets; Spirit of the Forest is his follow up. Legend has it that the Portuguese were the first people on the islands.

Due to its unfortunate location, Cape Verde was home to the cruelest aspect of the slave trade, the site of Portuguese fortresses where imprisoned West Africans were kept before being sent across the Atlantic to the horrors that awaited them. The harsh physical realities of the island and sparse vegetation made it the ideal prison.

The island population currently consists of the ances- tors of those who were forced to intermarry with the Portuguese, Africa 27 Africans who remained in Cape Verde to build roads, homes, and to work on plantations despite the hostile, dry climate. The callous rule of the Portuguese caused nearly 40 percent of the population to die during the droughts of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Today more Cape Verdeans live abroad than on the island, many in New England, especially in Rhode Island, where ties are kept with the homeland and its culture.

Her music is Morna, a combi- nation of Portuguese fado that came out of the brothels of Lisbon and Coimbra in Portugal during the middle of the nineteenth century, Brazilian modinha, and West African percussion with a strong influence from the innumerable sailors who frequented Cap- Vert.

It is a languid, sensual, slow-paced song form, melancholy music that is instantly recognizable and lovable. Coladeira is the Cape's upbeat, festive form, and funana is a jazz-tinged dance music, both lesser known than morna but more popular among the Cape Verdean diaspora.

Since Cesaria's breakthrough on the international scene and due to the seductive appeal of morna, many fine musicians and groups from Cape Verde have released recordings. Cesaria is living proof that the impossible can happen i. She has done this without compro- mising her musical integrity. She not only has become one of the leading voices of world music, but also is an international pop star who sells millions of CDs.

Cesaria is relishing her fame, singing the music she has sung her entire life, the Saudade-laced Portuguese morna from her island home of Cape Verde. Morna is an ambling, relaxed, soothing music style, cousin to a slow Samba or Modinha and 28 World Music rhythm that hints at Cuban Son. Cesaria has not forgotten her roots and performs barefoot as a show of solidarity with the poor women of the world. Bana is a male morna singer and former producer for Cesaria. Tristalegria Lusafrica, A fine guitarist and composer.

Di Alma Lusafrica, Miss Perfumado Melodie, is one of the great world music recordings, the one to get; Mar Azul Melodie, Protege of Cesaria. Criolinha Tinder, A ten-musician ensemble from the island of Santiago, Cape Verde's leading roots group, popular before Cesaria. Raiz Melodie, CONGO The very concept of "Afropop" has its roots in the Congolese music of the early s at a time when the continent was beginning to emerge from colonial rule.

Nowhere was the change more visible and vibrant than in the former Belgian colony. The head-on collision of African tradition with the brute force of imposed "modern" European culture and religion created a whirlpool of economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval that has wreaked havoc on the region ever since. The duplicitous King Leopold was de jure owner of the Congo in the s and along with his henchmen played the role of villain with impunity.

Despite the confusion, exploitation, and hypocrisy, it was a time of hope embodied most clearly in the martyred Patrice Lumumba, a time that would set the tone for much of the decoloniza- tion of the rest of the continent in the decades that followed. Africa 29 Beginning in the s, two Congos emerged on either side of the great river. The stubborn, frugal, determined Belgians estab- lished their capital in Leopoldville now Kinshasa on the southeast bank of the Congo.

Leopoldville mirrored the Belgian character: industry and efficiency were the priority; adherence to rigidly enforced rules and laws; compulsory art and leisure activities came in a distant third. The French Congo part of French Equatorial Africa established its capital in Brazzaville on the northwest side of the river.

Brazzaville reflected the French way, loosely organized, more colorful and relaxed, outwardly tolerant, an African city albeit one with chic shops and a touch of Paris. Both colonial rulers, however, were out for the same thing: absolute exploitation and control of the incomparable natural riches of the Congo. The turmoil of the times was reflected in the emergence of new musical forms that retained tradi- tional flavor and nuance while absorbing and modifying what the European culture flaunted.

In a short time, the identity of individual tribal music became difficult to discern as the new wave of performers began to experiment with the glut of Western instru- ments suddenly available, especially the almighty electric guitar. The African sound remained in the music, but a new form developed, originally called simply Congo, now known as soukous in the West.

The story of modern Congolese music begins with Henry Bowane, a talented guitarist and entrepreneur whose band was the first to perform outside the Congo, in Angola in The emergence of Congolese music, with its unmistakable rumba influence and a kinship with the Ghanian High Life of E.

T Mensah that had already begun to explode, was the beginning of Afropop. Bowane discovered the Congo's most famous star, Francois Lubambo Makiadi, known simply as "Franco," giving him his first gigs in Kinshasa in Bowane started the craze that swept the continent and to this day the music has great influence in virtually all forms of upbeat Afropop music.

Franco died in , but Tabu Ley is going strong today Cuban music, especially what is loosely referred to as rumba, has always been characterized by the world music cognoscenti as the most African of all Caribbean and South American musical forms. Cuban music is in reality African music deposited and sustained in the Western Hemisphere from the time of the slave trade. It made its first excursion back to the motherland in the form of Congolese music.

Yes, it was modified, modernized, and popularized, even Europeanized, but Congolese music is a concrete affirmation of the power of African culture. One of the most naturally beautiful voices on the world music scene belongs to the gifted Lokua Kanza.

He has apprenticed as arranger, sideman, and vocalist with Ray Lema, Papa Wemba, and Youssou N'Dour, and is now emerging as a different kind of African pop star. Pyrotechnics and dazzling percussion is not his bag. Lokua is a folksy troubadour with universal appeal, an effort- less, suave, sexy delivery that recalls the great Brazilian artist Djavan.

He is also a fine guitar player and composer. The Congo's greatest female singer was popular in the late s. Paris-based singer with a high tenor voice plays rippling, upbeat, dance groove music. Diblo Dibala and Rigo Starr have held down the guitar chair with distinction. Congo Life Stern's, Popular 's group returns with a winner on the coattails of the Orchestra Baobab phenomenon. Euro Congo. Safi Tinder, , Gaia Mango, The earliest female star.

The last of the great Zairean Rumba stars presents the lighter side of the music. Papa Wemba alumni went solo in the s moving to Paris, known for the Tcha Tcho beat. Wemba is the flamboyant, snazzy dressing one who fused Afro with pop and rock, the most modern of the big stars. New Wave collective plays electrified Soukous. Despite questionable handling of the national treasury, he was a revered figure in French West African politics.

Cote d'lvoire's greatest contribution to world music has long been its stature as the center for the African recording industry. Abidjan maintains numerous top-flight studios that have drawn the greatest stars from all over Africa, including Salif Keita, Manu Dibango, Mory Kante, Sam Mangwana, and home-grown artist Alpha Blondy.

Cote d'lvoire had not developed a distinctive national music style until Ernesto Djedje combined the local tradition of the Bete people with Congolese rhythms to make a new Ivoirian music known as ziglibithy. It is slightly slower than the Cameroon makossa, characterized by a jerky, almost frenzied rhythm. Ziglibithy became the national music in the s. Cote d'lvoire boasts one true international star, the African Rasta known as Alpha Blondy.

He has been a force on the scene since the early s when he got the reggae bug at a Burning Spear concert. He made pilgrimages to Jamaica thereafter and recorded with the Wailers at Tuff Gong studios. Almost single-handedly, he has made reggae a popular music in his country. His music is easily appealing, politically sophisticated, and has evolved with less of an edge than Jamaican reggae. He is the most famous musical artist from Cote d'lvoire, revered throughout West Africa. Roi du ziglibithy P.

M, reissue. Popular singer who died in as a national idol and inventor of ziglibithy. The grande dame of Ivoirian pop combines soukous and zouglou, the youth music of the 's, and the closest thing Cote d'lvoire has to a national music. Adouma Bolibana. Traditional, acoustic, breakneck speed sounds reviving an early twentieth century tradition.

Zagazougou Coup: Accordions from Abidjan Piranha. GABON Part of Equatorial Africa from , Gabon has shared the experience of colonial rule and French influence along with its West African neighbors, including being ravaged by the slave trade until the s. Gabon's history in the twentieth century includes greater independence and home rule than other West African French territo- ries.

During the Nigerian civil war in the late s, Gabon was one of the few African countries to give aid to Biafra. Gabon's oil industry accounts for the highest per capita income of any Sub-Saharan country. He was both partner and counterpart to Cameroonian Frances Bebey as an advocate for the wider exposure of African music as a means of transmitting culture.

He collaborated with Hugues de Courson of Bretagne folk group Malicorne fame to produce the prodigious Lambarena oratorio in homage to Albert Schweitzer, who established a hospital at Lambarene on the Ogooue River in More than musicians 34 World Music and singers took part in the project, which took 6 months to prepare and 3 months to record. Ethnomusicological recording with the usual high standards of Ocora. It was the smallest of the West African nations in the Mandinka Empire and the most popular West African tourist destination at the turn of the new millennium.

Its music and economy are dominated by Senegal. Gambia was colonized by the British, gaining independence in Gambian music is performed by Fula, Suso, and Wolof griots who are the keepers of the oral history. Its neighbors dominate its musical culture. Kora master. Sotuma Sere , Traditional Crossroads. Susso's solo outing is a beautiful recording, showing his stark playing with subtle vocal undertones. Popular Beatles-influenced band from the early s that has become more traditional since their Western pop beginnings.

Saraba , Senegambian Sensation Retro Afrique, GHANA Ghana is arguably the most stable and economically successful country in Africa midway through the first decade of twenty-first century. It boasts a constitutional government with separation of Africa 35 powers i.

Prior to the fifteenth century, oral history refers to migrations from the ancient kingdoms of Western Sudan, Mauritania, and Mali. The first white colonists were Portuguese, who arrived in the region circa The Europeans named the region the Gold Coast because of its rich mineral reserves. By the English, Danes, Dutch, and Germans had followed, setting up trading forts along the coast and in Togo.

By the British had taken control of all the trading and in the Fanti chiefs signed an agreement that led to the formation of colonial states. From , the inland Ashanti people fought prolonged battles with the British, who thereafter consolidated the Ashanti territory with Togoland. In , the Gold Coast became the first Sub-Saharan nation to achieve independence under Kwame Nkrumah, with Togoland being absorbed as part of the newly named Ghana the name came from an ancient African kingdom, whose people supposedly emigrated to the area from the south.

Nkrumah formed modern, semi-industrial Ghana as a unitary socialist state. He was one of the great Pan African activists who used music as a tool to affirm the culture of his people, regularly supporting artists and musicians in their careers, and establishing an undying allegiance from the people as a result. By , a constitution was adopted and separa- tion of powers in place.

Despite periods of military rule, especially under Flight Lt. Rawlings in the s, Ghana has emerged to be the unquestioned leader of the region in the twenty-first century. When fortresses were set up along the Gold Coast, they included military bands that featured flugelhorns, bugles, guitars, accordions, banjos, saxophones, and the like.

Soon local bars, cafes, and clubs began presenting musical groups who incorporated the new instru- ments into their repertoire, eventually developing into a style known 36 World Music as High Life, a fusion of American jazz rhythms with the local osib music, a percussion-based dance music of the Akan people whose existence was inextricably linked to the gold trade.

Ghana is where the first Afropop music was born. High life developed its name because the music — originally played by big bands with large horn sections — was performed in swank dance clubs along the coast. Those who could afford to get in were said to be living the "high life" by everyone else who congregated outside the clubs to catch the sounds. The outsiders were the ones who dubbed the music High Life.

The music of Ghana is inextricably tied to the vision and genius of one man, E. Mensah , who is widely recognized as the King of High Life and a founding father of African popular music. Along with the soldiers came musicians who introduced jazz, swing, and Caribbean sounds to the local rhythms and music. Mensah absorbed everything, eventually teaming up with renowned drummer Guy Warren b. Kofi Ghanaba in the famous Tempos band, which toured Europe in , playing mostly Afro-Cuban rhythms.

It had always been there, entrenched in West African Culture. What I did was give it world acceptance. He was responsible for elevating the level of professionalism of African dance music and was the first to truly popularize it throughout the rest of West Africa. The Roots of Highlife Sterns, Top studio guitarist formerly with Osibisa performs modern High Life with his band Boombaya. Ghana Gone jazz The hot name in High Life in the s with his band Sweet Talks, Crentsil is active in the recording studio scene in Accra.

One Man Thousand Akuboat, is his nickname, and also the name of his best, most available recording. One of the first African bands to achieve worldwide recog- nition. After independence in , a new nation led by popular President Luis Cabral enjoyed a cultural revolution and a period of freedom and rejoicing. Kriolu, the local language, is a combination of Portuguese and Creole tongues, as well as the name of the music identified with liberation in Guinea-Bissau.

The music played a mobilizing and unifying part in the struggle for independ- ence. Ze Carlos died in a "mysterious" plane crash in Sadly, after a decade of relative tranquility, war has ravaged the country since the mids and the people have experienced virtually nothing but civil strife and economic hardship. The one upbeat note has been Guinea-Bissau's gumbe music, a genre related to the Brazilian samba, the morna of Cape Verde, and 38 World Music the semba of Angola.

Gumbe borrows from many local folk styles and contains unique West African polyrhythms, non-Portuguese forms that date back to the s. Although the future of this small country is currently in doubt as of this writing, several remarkable artists continue to record and make important music.

The leading light of gumbe music. The Best of Kaba Mane Melodie. A national figure after independence, Ze's composi- tion Tustumunhol di Aonti "yesterday's testimony" became a National anthem. Colonial powers — Portugal, England, and France — traded with local chiefs, obtaining cheap, hard labor workers. The boundaries of the country were established under French rule in when the country became known as French Guinea.

When confronted with the choice of autonomy or independence, he chose the latter, mistakenly thinking he would be supported by Cote dTvoire and Senegal. Independence came in , but it was the beginning of economic and political decline. Tour turned to the Soviet Union for help and promptly started a communist regime, which in the long run caused the fall of the country and its ruin. In , a Chinese-style Cultural Revolution was implemented, which led to an exodus of around 2 Africa 39 million Guineans, including most of the educated population, and further impoverished the country.

As recently as Guinea was considered the poorest country in the world, despite vast natural resources of gold, diamonds, iron, and other minerals. A great kora and balafon tradition and caste system of griots exists in Guinea much as in Mali. Once the official band of the government, Bembeya have been in business since the late s and are back on the scene with Bembeya Jazz World Village, They play big- band style Congolese music with trademark four guitars, touches of Cuban son, Islamic gnawa influences, and swing like crazy.

Tula Flute Blue Monster, cooks with more than a smidgen of Roland Kirk, an intense, trance-like recording. The Legendary Kora master. Anthologie du Balafon Mandingue Buda, Kante is a griot who at the age of 7 was sent to Mali to learn to play the kora.

He permanently relocated in Bamako a decade later and joined the famous Rail Band. He stayed with the band for 7 years, eventually developing a rivalry with Salif Keita. In he recorded Courougnegne, the beginning of crossover proj- ects incorporating Mandinkan music, which brought him fame in Africa and Europe. Former member of the Ambassadeurs, Manfila is one of Africa's great guitarists.

Kankan Blues World Circuit, Moors and the nomadic Tuareg and Sahel people populate the north, with the Manding culture inhabiting the south. Mali is a poor country whose Islamic influence remains pervasive in the twenty-first century. It once was a cliche in the West to refer to Timbuktu as the quintessential, mythical far away place.

Today, despite Mali's traditional lifestyle and customs, Timbuktu is no longer an unknown location, in great part due to Mali's rich musical tradition, perhaps the greatest in all of West Africa. Bamako is the country's musical and cultural center, and Mali is quite simply a major world music powerhouse. Only these jelis griots in other regions of West Africaj, or female jelimusolus, are allowed to become professional musicians or singers.

Salif Keita, Mali's greatest singer and musician, is an exception to the ancient caste system. He was born into a regal family, allegedly descended from the ancient Malian warrior-king Sunjata Keita, who united many small kingdoms and who remains an important figure in modern Mali. Salif's regal background forbade him from becoming a musician, but he broke the mold and tradition by becoming a performer as a non-jeli and in the process helped bring Malian music to the world stage.

Ancient tradition is revered by the Mande people and the culture of the old kingdoms continues to be part of modern society, a polyg- amous one that has been slow to address the rights of women and modern technology due both to its poor economic state and reli- gious orthodoxy.

The rigid structure of Mande society is such that virtually every surname has a specific connotation relating to class, Africa 41 occupation, or profession. The limited number of names — Kouyate, Keita, Diabate, Sissiko, Toure, and Traore approximately twelve in total with spelling variations — are familiar to world-music fans, but create considerable confusion for the uninitiated. The Wassoulou culture south of Bamako does not adhere to the class restrictions of the Northern Mande people, and permits anyone to be a musician.

This region possesses a strong musical heritage that came into world prominence in the early s and dates back only to the late s as a distinct form. Many current West African stars come from this area, including the incomparable diva Oumou Sangare see profile. The kora is a cross between a harp and a lute, usually constructed with strings and played sitting down with the instrument in a vertical position, much as the classical western harp.

It is the melodic center of Malian music, widely heard throughout West Africa. The balafon, a wooden xylophone and its rich percussive sound is the other signature voice of Malian music. The ngoni, a long, lute-like instrument, is not as prevalent as the kora or balafon, but is an integral part of most Malian recordings.

A wide range of drums are also part of the tradition especially the djembe pronounced '"jem-bay" , which is played throughout the world in a multitude of musical settings and genres because of its adaptability, mellifluous sound, and wide sonic range. The styles that emerged at the time ostensibly combined Cuban and Latin rhythms with traditional Malian forms. Many of these Latin rhythms had of course been brought from West Africa to the Caribbean and the Americas centuries ago. Leading musicians from Mali, Senegal, Cameroon, Guinea, and Ghana, upon achieving economic success and therefore freedom, have expatriated from their native lands mostly former French colonies and moved to Paris where opportunity to be heard on the world stage far exceeds that available at home.

Afropop, while undeniably popular music, has become a calling card from the region, popular for sure, but always maintaining its unique cultural identity. Although not "traditional" in the purest sense of the word, Afropop has evolved into a legitimately indige- nous music of many countries of West Africa having shed the initial Latin influence in favor of a more contemporary focus.

It has also evolved into West Africa's most significant cultural export. Sangare's release Moussolou Women , a gorgeous acoustic set, catapulted her to fame in the region even though her outspoken views against polygamy and arranged marriage were expressed clearly on the recording. This did not endear her to the older male population in Mali, who cling to the culture's history of oppressing women.

The women of Mali and West Africa heard her call, though, and immediately related to her message, as did the younger generation of men. Moussolou sold over , copies in West Africa, an incredible number for any world music recording, but an unheard of number for the continent where retail shops barely exist and disposable income is a foreign concept to most. The subsequent World Circuit Label release of the recording elevated Sangare to major diva status. She has continued to prosper and get her message out, with a series of great recordings, songs for interna- tional film soundtracks, and a demanding touring schedule.

Toumani is a leading instrumentalist in Malian music. Kaira Hannibal, is the first solo kora recording Africa 43 released in the west; Djelika Hannibal, with balafon wiz Keletigui Diabate is a more realized work; Songhai Hannibal, is early fusion with Flamenco group Katema hetama. The new Malian Diva Dibi Cobatt, Salif is a master of praise music and Mali's greatest musical ambassador.

Soro Mango, is a breathtaking master- piece, the standard against which all Afropop is judged; Folon Mango, ; Moffu World Circuit, is Salif 's best since Soro, a mature work by a true genius. Baro Putumayo, is a gem; Maya Putumayo, The most powerful and revered female jelis- musolu singer in Mali.

She is Arethaesque. Kity Kan Mango, , Biriko Mango, Praise singer with a Mandinkan griot voice that rivals Salif Keita. Kela Tradition Sterns, See profile. Moussolou Women World Circuit, is a gorgeous acoustic set that catapulted her to fame. Worotan World Circuit, is popish. Soleil du Minuit Tinder, The Rail Band began in Bamako at the Hotel de la Gare train station circa as part of a government-sponsored program promoting traditional music.

Salif Keita, Mory Kante, and many other stars served their apprenticeships in the band under the tutelage of visionary guitarist and leader Djelimady Tounkara. Mans, Mango, Espace Real World, is a gentle, soulful outing. Malian Tuareg group born in refuge camps in Libya are in the forefront of Sub-Saharan rock; Jimi Hendrix in the desert 44 World Music with robes, a lot of attitude, eclectic and haunting. Tounkara released his first solo recording in — Sigui Indigo, , which highlights his Western influenced folk guitar style in an "unplugged" set.

Toure is a major world music star, an African counterpart to Son House, John Lee Hooker, and the acoustic guitar tradition of Afro-American blues from the mid-twentieth century. His roots are from the Songhai and Tuareg cultures near Timbuktu. Kar Kar is the dean of the folk branch of Malian music. Rokia has discarded the conceptual confines of chauvinistic Malian society for stardom in the real world.

Bowmboi Label Bleu, is a breakout recording by an exciting artist. Wanita Label Bleu, A five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north ended in and true civilian rule took hold in Musically overshadowed by its neighbors in West Africa, Niger has a close historical and cultural affinity with Mali and Senegal.

Niger is essentially a desert land that is still reeling from the devastating drought in the Sahel region in the s, a country where it doesn't rain for 9 months of the year! It is home to the nomadic Tuareg tribes who are of Berber descent and live in the north and central west. Unlike virtually every other culture in West Africa and in Africa as a whole , women in Tuareg society hold positions of power and have property rights.

They are also singers and musi- cians whose role in nomadic culture is highly regarded. Dendi Music Ocora, This is a stark recording from the ever-reliable Ocora label. The Goge is the tradi- tional single stringed spiked fiddle of Niger.

A group with a true vision that combines old and new, Niger's most adventuresome band performs with flute, bass, molo and komsa two-and three-stringed lutes , calabash, chorus, kalangou hand drum , and guitar. Alatoumi World Village, Traditional Tuareg Music of Niger Ocora, By the thirteenth century, much of Kanem was Islamic, as were the kingdoms of Kano and Katsina, whose wealth came from control of the trans-Saharan trade route from West Africa to the Mediterranean.

These northern Islamic states remained untouched by Europeans until well into the nineteenth century. The southern states were dominated in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries by Yoruba empires with traditional kings Obas who culti- vated European contact through the Portuguese spice trade and retained power through the nineteenth century. By the end of the eighteenth century, Fulani religious zealots in the north, resenting the dominance of the region by the Hausa states, created the largest unified caliphate in Africa, centered in Sokoto under the jihad of Usman dan Fodio.

The original conflict between the Islamic government in the north and the Yoruba tribes in the south has never truly subsided. Over the years intertribal fighting and civil wars have repeatedly exacer- bated old wounds. After the spice trade lost its force, the Portuguese and then the British began to deal in slavery. By , when slavery was banned, 46 World Music the British took control of the Jos mines, destroying the livelihood of independent tin producers.

The reliance on the mining trade was achieved at the expense of Nigeria's food crops, which led to the first-ever food shortage. In the British annexed Lagos and seized control of the rest of the region by In the region became the Protectorate of Nigeria. In Nigeria declared independence and became a member of the United Nations, organized into a loose federation of states with the daunting task of unifying ethnic and linguistic groups. However, by , after a series of massacres, hostilities, and a mili- tary coup, the dream of a unified Nigeria was floundering.

The Ibo seceded from the federation and declared the independent republic of Biafra, which started a full civil war. One million were left dead and the name "Biafra" has since come to be synonymous with mass destruction and famine. A reversal of fortunes occurred in the s due to the increase in oil prices, providing oil rich Nigeria with a chance to go on a spending spree of reckless proportions.

Corruption became de rigueur, crime increased, and chaos became the rule of the day. The world recession of the s sent oil prices plummeting and Nigeria sunk into massive debt, with inflation and unemployment rampant. In , Nigeria succumbed to the rule of dictator General Abacha, who promised a United States type of democracy, but who ruled as a despot showed his despotic nature by executing well-known play- wright Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight others for expressing their antigovernment views.

Abacha died in , replaced by Major General Abubakar, who brought modest civilian rule to the country. Olusegun Obasanjo, a former military ruler and political prisoner, was elected in It seemed for a moment that Nigeria would be free of military rule, but things reverted to disharmony soon, as rival religious and tribal groups, no longer threatened by army intervention, entered into a protracted conflict.

Despite its unstable political history, Nigeria remains the super- power of West Africa, a position enhanced by its military interventions in civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone. As the twenty-first century proceeds, Nigeria must be a major player in determining the plight of West Africa if stability in the region is to be achieved. Fela Anikulapo Kuti was the father of Afro Beat, a powerful singer and saxophonist and Nigeria's most famous musician, whose music is best described as Yoruban jazz.

His career went from controversy to dilemma due to his immense talent, larger ego, and his attcks on the oppressive Nigerian government. Fela was truly a militant activist who chose song over the gun, embraced the Black Power movement in the United States in the 's and transported the attitude to West Africa. He was an arrogant egotist, an obsessive marijuana user, a notorious womanizer, and an international figure who lived by the proverbial sword and died of AIDS in His absence has left a void that cannot be filled.

His live performances command several hundred thousand dollars each and his records sell in the millions. If Fela was the brash outspoken Mingus type, a foil and thorn in the side of the government because of his vocal opposition to the military juntas and his advocacy of human rights including his right to have wives and for marijuana to be legalized , King Sunny has reamained above the fray.

Born to a wealthy family, and himself a business tycoon oil wells and night clubs , Sunny is not exactly in concert with the powers that be, but simply above reproach in the manner of Duke Ellington — a regal being as his moniker suggests. JUJU Juju is one of Africa's great musical genres, a derivative of palm wine music from Sierra Leone, with beginnings in the early s. Dairo, known as the "Father of Juju Music," introduced the talking drum, accordion, and steel guitar to the music and pioneered the short refrain that characterizes the vocal style and format of juju.

His Morning Star Orchestra, later called the Blue Spots, was the most popular band in Nigeria just before and after independ- ence in Following the successful recordings of Ebenezer Obey in the s, juju became the prime popular music of the Yoruban people, with King Sunny presiding as its Chairman of the Board from the late s to the present.

Despite its popularity, juju 48 World Music retains a distinctive roots quality. It is laconic dance music, which draws on itsYoruban roots. Yoruban culture has sustained its strength and primacy, spreading throughout South America and the Caribbean, surviving the slave trade, especially in Cuba and in the Brazilian province of Bahia. Even before the death of Fela in , Nigeria had begun to lose its musical identity.

Dairo in popular lyrics, an ignorant attitude akin to making fun of Louis Armstrong. More Fuji Garbage Globestyle, Reggae star and Rasta figure. Spirit of Love Interscope, is a great reggae recording. Kuti released more than 50 CDs of varying quality. Aki Special Rounder, contains Sweet Mother, which sold 13 million copies. Early juju star, fore- runner and competitor of King Sunny Ade. Pop star from the s, switched to gospel in the 's. Liberation Shanachie, The late percussion legend was one of the first international stars from Africa, a peer of Hugh Masekela and Miriam Makeba, and an influence on John Coltrane.

Drums of Passion Sony reissue, The vibrant music scene in Dakar, Senegal's largest city, is arguably the most important on the continent, and along with the legendary Abidjan studio scene in neighboring Cote d'lvoire, Senegal is the center of Afropop in the twenty-first century. Senegal shares Mali's musical caste system of griots, hereditary musicians born to sing and play praise music in the Wolof dialect. However, Senegal is a far more progressive and sophisticated nation than Mali, leading the region in literature, cinema, and the visual arts.

Many Senegalese think of themselves as French and in fact have dual citizenship dating back to the time they achieved inde- pendence in Senegal in many ways is a paradox, a nation that is 95 percent Muslim, but with a modern view toward the world that reveres music.

After successive democratic elections, the government is quite stable and the future is bright. At home, followers of the charismatic Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba and the Mouride sect of Muslims that follow him control virtually all of the music business. Bamba is a revered religious icon who brought 50 World Music modern Islam to Senegal, a more contemporary and tolerant brand than that found in Mali, North Africa, and the Middle East. M BALAX Senegal's most important musical import is mbalax em-bah-lakh , an infectious, syncopated dance music that originated in the early s.

It is played by a series of drums known as the sabar, which include the mbung mbung lead drum , jembe, tama talking drum , ngorum, bougarabu, tungune, ndende, nder, tiol, and talmbeut, collectively called "tarn tarns," each with a slightly different pitch and role in the rhythm.

As with much West African music, mbalax has roots in Cuban music. Beginning with his tenure in the group Etoile de Dakar in the late s, Youssou N'dour has been the artist most responsible for popularizing the music. He was the first to combine traditional music with sabar drums, saxophones, and elec- tric guitars. N'dour and members of Etoile de Dakar contributed the mbalax beat on "Diamonds on the Souls of Her Shoes," from Paul Simon's Graceland album, the first truly global exposure for the music and the rhythm.

Since its explosion on the world music scene in the early 's, the music has continued to evolve, incor- porating global sounds and hip-hop. The blind vocalists have been performing since the late s and now incorporate American blues, Cuban son, Indian rhythms, and French folk songs into their music.

Leader and guitar virtuoso Thione Seek recycled Afro-Cuban sounds back to the motherland and estab- lished the orchestra as the most popular West African Group of the s and ''s. Singer, composer, dancer, and world music giant Baaba Maal is one of the most exciting performers in the world. Exciting Paris based hip-hop group. Boomerang Wrasse, features a guest spot by Malian diva Rokia Traore. The biggest star from Senegal, if not all of Africa, N'Dour virtually created mbalax.

Most of his recordings do not accurately display his true genius. Set, from , is perhaps the most traditional; Nothing's in Vain World Circuit, ; Egypt Nonesuch, a reflective turn to Islam and his most realized recording. Former lead singer from seminal group Super Diamano is a great stylist and a major star.

Ne la Thiass World Circuit, is superb. Blind guitarist, griot, and mentor of Baaba Maal. Nider Fouta Toro Vol. The seminal mbalax group, there before Youssou N'Dour, broke up in after 20 years as the political 52 World Music conscience of the otherwise conservative Senegalese praise music scene. Old sides hard to find; grab anything pre Toure Kunda Celluloid.

The Senegalese Wolof percussionist supreme, the "Jimi Hendrix of the skins" who plays the sabar drum, native to Senegal. Djabote Real World, In the late eighteenth century, it was established as a colony for freed slaves who wanted to safely return to their home continent, and when the British abolitionists colonized Sierra Leone their intent was to create a free state for slaves throughout the New World.

Freetown was the site of this plan in , evolving as an economic center and home to the Krio people, a new culture. In the early part of the twentieth century, diamond and gold mining supported the economy handsomely.

Despite periods of prosperity in the s, in Liberia's Charles Taylor brought his civil war to Sierra Leone and chaos has ruled ever since. Taylor's resignation coupled with interim support from Nigeria and the United States in temporarily quelled atrocities, but the jury is still out on whether or not peace and stability will come any time soon. Palm wine music is characterized by a light, easy, lilting song style that hints at calypso.

Its origins are in the Krio culture, the seagoing, guitar-playing people of Sierra Leone and Liberia. Few artists in the world are as closely associated with a genre as Sooliman Ernest Rogie is with plum wine music. Rogie used Western pop, folk music, American country star Jimmie Rodgers' records, and High Life to create his unique sound.

Palm wine music expresses the everyday trials and tribulations of life; as Rogie has said, "Emotions are the same all over the world. Leader of dance band Rkoto and heir to S. The Sixties Sounds of S. Freetown NubaNegra, The influence of Islam is especially profound in the Sudan, Somalia, and Tanzania. Kenya's alliance with the West, especially its trading relationship with Israel, made it a target for Islamic terrorism.

The music of East Africa is the least known, internationally, of all the music from the continent. However, there are some incredibly unique sounds from the region, including a booming scene in Ethiopia that has reemerged since the end of the war with Eritrea; the vibrant musical cauldron of Madagascar; and the unique sounds of Maloya from Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean. Burundi gained inde- pendence from Belgium in It is a landlocked country with few natural resources.

Poverty is endemic. At the time of this writing, Burundi had not recovered from the horrific "ethnic" violence sustained during the widespread war in the region from , which spilled over to the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. The stability of Burundi is extremely fragile. The problems of the region in general have been greatly exacerbated by the AIDS epidemic, which continues to plague Central and South Africa despite promises from the United States to give financial aid to combat the crisis.

While there is little recorded music available from Burundi, Khadja Nin is a major vocalist, one of Africa's most popular and talented singers. Khadja, who is based in Europe, fled Burundi in the early s when she lost her husband and other relatives to the wars. She continues to record her brand of acoustic Afropop that speaks of the tragedy of her homeland, the politics and poverty, always with an optimistic attitude that communicates her love of life.

Miriam Makeba has been her idol since childhood. Her first eponymous recording, Khadja Nin , preceded the world music boom. Sombolera, is beautifully produced and put her on the map, selling more than , copies worldwide. Eritrea is the youngest country in Africa, with a long border on the Red Sea, a land full of hope and spirit.

The music coming out of Eritrea is also promising, especially female vocalist Faytinga who is a burgeoning world music diva. She is the daughter of a well-known soldier and as a teenager was a combatant during the struggle for independence. Her music features ballads, love songs, and composi- tions praising the soldiers and mourning those who died in the war.

The music has a decidedly oriental feeling, evidencing Eritrea's prox- imity to the Arab world and Asia. It is one of the most unique and fascinating cultures on the planet. It was a Christian nation long before Islam swept through North Africa and even today retains a minority Afro-Jewish community, although many of Ethiopia's Jews moved to Israel in the latter part of the twentieth century. Ethiopia's history in the twentieth century is inextricably tied to the Emperor Haile Selassie. He came to power in and modernized the country before losing the confidence of his people after almost 40 years as a mostly revered ruler.

Selassie also played an indirect role in the development of reggae. The Emperor became a quasi-deity in the eyes of Jamaican Rastafarians in the s, who revere Ethiopia as the promised land and Selassie as a divine Rasta. Following Selassie's demise in the early s, the repressive, Marxist Mengistu regime capitalized on the Emperor's failures, sending the country into isolation from the west until Mengistu's inhumane policies led to the horrific famine that gained international attention and spawned the "We are the World" benefit recording.

Due to the lack of sophisticated farming technique, peri- odic horrific droughts and a deterioration of Ethiopia's infrastructure, at the time of this writing the country was facing yet another cata- strophic famine that threatened to be as severe and devastating as , when more than a million Ethiopians starved to death. Amharic musicians have recited their oral history through song for centuries, usually accompanied by the krar, a 6- stringd lyre that dates back 4, years and is said to be one of the ancestors of the banjo, the masenqo, a one string fiddle, and washint, an end-blown flute.

In the s, a young Haile Selassie brought Armenian refugees from Jerusalem to Ethiopia to form a military brass band, and the style served as the backdrop for the country's early recording artists including Tilahoun Gessesse, the Hindi-styled Neway Debebe, and Ethiopia's most famous musical artist, Mahmoud Ahmed. These stars sang both traditional and popular repertoires playing the large halls of Addis where the iskista dance was performed, replete with shaking shoulders, heaving chests, and heads snapping back.

The music is characterized by a fast triplet beat with quivering voices and a call-and-response exchange between brass and reeds that brings the music to a rock and roll volume level. The unique character of Ethiopian music comes from the use of the five-note, pentatonic scale and a penchant for large intervals between the notes that creates an eerily incomplete, lingering, unresolved feeling.

The music is also asymmetrical and has an uncanny similarity to American soul music. Eskeusta, or ecstasy, is the term used to describe the shaking motion that is produced by the very best singers, an orgasmic state that is communicated to the listener during performance, analogous to the concept of duende in flamenco, although there is no musical relationship between these two styles.

The history of the suffering that is part of life in Ethiopia finds its way into the traditional music as achinoy, a melancholy and treasured quality in Ethiopian music, somewhat analogous to the Brazilian saudade. Since the lifting of the infamous curfews that were prevalent during the Mengistu regime, the established stars of Ethiopia can now travel to many isolated communities long out of touch with their favorite artists.

Addis has become a hotbed for new stars, who incorporate Kenyan pop, American hip-hop, and reggae into their sound. The long dominant Amharic music currently has competition from the neo-traditional styles from regions such as Tigray Gonder, Africa and Oromo, led by Kiross Alemayehu who spent 4 years in Mengistu's jails for his songs about freedom and democracy.

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