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Studies its domestic and foreign influence has been essential. In this sense, it has been provided different essays and works of interest on topics such as the following: a The peculiarities of Freemasonry in the framework of a colonial power as Spain was, with the evaluation of the impact of the pontifical condemnation in Field in which we have to include aspects related to the circulation of ideas, journeys and science during the eighteenth century.

Studies and the need to generate new lines and methods of study and research, as well as the need to produce texts that can be useful not only to specialists but also to anyone interested in learning about unique aspects of this rich and complex historical process. Ferrer Benimeli is responsible for ana- lysing, with the contribution of new materials, the very complex relationship between Freemasonry and the Jesuits.

But, additionally, it makes it possible to study aspects of great interest about the secularisation of contemporary societies, the ideo- logical conflicts and many other topics of great signifi- cance. Therefore his analysis provides a vast field of re- flection. Above all if we remember, in the general framework of this work, the need to know the «inventions and tradi- tions» that mark its historical evolution, assimilating many of the hermetic principles of certain trends of universal thought.

The authors have ventured into the study of trends of political opinion and of aspects of cultural identity, as well as into the anti-Freemasonic ideological constructions which, with the help and protection of ecclesiastical prohibitions, proliferated in Spain since the eighteenth century and up to the pre- sent day, paying special attention to the increasing awareness of opinions on socio-political context be- fore the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

Studies starting from the need to demystify what for genera- tions had traditionally been written about the history of Freemasonry, took several historians to the creation of quite original and innovative models of analysis, in relation to the works by colleagues from other countries who, in principle, have lacked centralised and state documentary collections, and who have had to use, occasionally, secondary sources as substitutes for the Freemasonic documentation that lodges, grand lodges and grand orients usually offer very restrictively to scholars from other latitudes.

Therefore, the independent character and the methodological rigour of the Spanish school of history of Freemasonry has made it possible to undertake research lines which, in some respects, offered and offer truly novel and, especially, rigorous approaches in relation to certain historical realities of general interest.

Mutual secret and plot traditionally exploited by all of them in an age-old con- frontation that was more visceral than rational most of the times. And here secret is likewise double, since every plot is a decision agreed in common and secretly, against someone, and particularly against the State or the form of government.

Secret and plot, more fictitious than real but equally effective, as a justification for attacks and po- lemics. In this way, Freemasons and Jesuits are involved in a kind of symbiosis in which they intertwine and confront each other at the same time, converted into useful and necessary or, at least, inevitable enemies, although some work Ad universum terrarum orbis supremum architectum gloriam and other Ad maiorem Dei gloriam.

The Myth of the Jesuits Infiltrated Into Freemasonry In the late eighteenth century, in the face of the pro- liferation of High Degrees within Freemasonry and the importance achieved by the Freemasonic legend around the Stuarts although there are numerous historians who question such links , it is introduced the myth that the Jesuits had created the High Degrees in order to restore the Stuarts to the throne, precisely in a moment when Je- suits did not exist as such after the pontifical suppression of the Society of Jesus in A variation of this leg- endary invention holds the theory which affirms that Jesuits had tried to get into Freemasonry, seizing the High Degrees of the Scottish Rite, with the intention of taking revenge on the sovereigns who had expelled them from their respective States symmetric explana- tion to the one that makes Freemasons spiritual heirs of the Templars, eager to take revenge on the kings, and especially on the King of France because of the murder of Jacques de Molay and his companions , or of securing their universal dominion.

Ferrer-Benimeli Protestant Freemasons, an inclination to Catholicism. This explains how «under the pretext of Freemasonic rites, there were practised a number of Catholic rites» Starck, ; Starck, It seems that some rigid Protestants and rationalist Freemasons took this issue very seriously, and they thought they saw in it the effect of underground handlings that led to accusa- tions of crypto-Catholicism.

Then the Freemasonic- Jesuit legend took its final shape when it was believed that the perpetrators of these intrigues were discovered. These perpetrators were none others than the ex-Jesuits who, after the suppression, would not have given up the struggle but they had become all the more dangerous since they, from then on, concealed their activity even more carefully than they had done before their dissolution.

Thus the Jesuit legend was born, which came to stand at the already rich cycle of Freemasonic fables. In any case, it is true that the fable on Jesuit penetra- tion in Freemasonry had distant origins since, from the seventeenth century, it had been sporadically associated with the legend of the Rose-Cross by suspicious Protestants.

This accusation was formulated again after the disso- lution of the Order of the Jesuits, who this time were made suspects of having resurrected the Confraternity of the Rose-Cross in order to use it as a front and, by means of it, got into the lodges.

Thus, among the pa- pers of celebrated Professor Schroeder, a famous Rosi- crucian, it was found a libel related to this «mysterious» matter Le Forestier, For their part, the German Templars had wondered if their system was not controlled by the manoeuvres of the disciples of Loyola. Finally, while some perceptive brethren discovered that the initials S.

This booklet put in the same boat both Rosicrucians and Templars as puppets handled by the Jesuits. The work, which came out with false imprint, was actually published in Nuremberg Geffarth, under the pseudonym Magister Pianco, which concealed its real author. It seems that the brief treatise has been rightly attributed to noble Hans Heinrich Freiherr von Ecker und Eckhoffen But what until then had only been vague accusa- tions, isolated noise without echo, became, through the work of a high dignitary of the Strict Observance, an indictment that intended to be supported by irrefu- table arguments and that would reach a great circula- tion.

Here he shows us his «great discovery»: the disciples of Loyola had invented in the eighteenth centu- ry the Symbolic Freemasonry to fight against triumphant Protestantism in England with Cromwell. After the second revolution in England they had raised Scottish Freemasonry, later the Templar Freemasonry in order to work for the restoration of the Stuarts and thus restore the hegemony of the Roman religion on the other side of the English Channel. Ferrer-Benimeli their handlings against the reformed religion and, after , in order to dissimulate more easily the illegal existence of their society.

After mentioning various charac- ters who would have been unconscious instruments in the hands of the Jesuits he mentions, for example, Johnson, Hund, Starck and his Clercs du Temple, Gugomos, Waechter and the Enlightened Chapter of Sweden , he continues with the analysis of Freemasonic ritual and symbolism, where he finds everywhere the alliance of the Jesuits and the Stuarts. Bode would end up finding loyal allies of his theory among the Bavarian Illuminati, especially in the person of Adolf Knigge, the real organiser of this Order founded by Johann Adam Weishaupt, a professor of law at the University of Ingolstadt who had insisted on the fight against the domination which the Catholic clergy and the ex-Jesuits exercised in the Electorate in all branches of education.

Knigge had observed him very well; after that he says that, although old, he still looked for the truth he had not been able to learn during his forty years as Freemason; that he still looked with indifference at every system, though he was fervent, furious and ambitious since he wanted to play the role of dominant character, and even to be flattered by princes themselves Barruel, , IV: Knigge, Baron of the Empire, gentleman without lands and without fortune, was in his way a specialist of secret societies.

Ferrer-Benimeli wisdom and love for virtue, that is Freemasonry. However, in this work he does not attribute to the Jesuits the founding of the secret society; he is satisfied with stating that they tried to seize its leadership in when James II ascended the English throne. Ferrer-Benimeli organisation and a part of their capital.

The interest of these publications of the eighteenth century is merely retrospective, since, obviously, there is nothing serious in the arguments stated in them against the Jesuits. However, throughout the nine- teenth century proliferated a type of literature in which, with very diverse and even antagonistic aims and contents, we can find the Jesuits-Freemasons pairing. In the twentieth century, the following are worthy of mention: M.

Ferrer-Benimeli superior. Later, similar accusations were hurled with regard to the relation between Jesuits and Freemasons. He dates back this suspicion to the very origins of Speculative Freemasonry as an explanation of the Freemason Jacobites, that is, Jesuits infiltrated for the restoration of the Catholic Stuarts. In the same vein, the mentioned author remembers that, in when Michel Ramsay introduced the so- called «higher degrees» in Freemasonry, at first it was considered as a Jesuit intrigue.

Ramsay, according to what many Freemasons believed, would have submit- ted himself and accepted the mission of getting the Catholic hierarchical spirit into the core of Freemason- ry. Still in , the historian Johann-Joseph-Gabriel Findel wrote that «the Jesuits had succeeded in pro- ducing disputes and confusion throughout the earth in the league of Freemasons, by means of the falsification of rites and the introduction of high degrees». In any case, the dualism «Jesuits-Freemasons» has re- mained the subject of numerous publications during the twentieth century.

The book by Jesuit J. Ferrer-Benimeli , was wrote in search of a dialogue and thanks to a friendship. In terms of the sincerest friendship, they organised a group of «freethinkers and free-believers», as they called it in privacy with an ex- pression not lacking in refined humour.

Its purpose tended to bring together all men of good will. But in the Gestapo denounced Lehman, who was Jew- ish, and he was deported to Dachau. Fifteen days later, Father Dillard followed the same path. Both were taken to the gas chamber. The legend that the Jesuits were introduced «secretly» in Freemasonry according to some in order to destroy it, and according to others in order to make use of it is still alive.

A fairly recent manifestation of this age-old myth is as surprising as anachronistic and corresponds to an essay by Charles Porset entitled «Fructu cognoscitur arbor. The Myth of the Secret of Freemasons and of Jesuits The resource of the secret of Freemasons and of Jesuits, often more apparent than real, has been used as justifi- cation and proof of what in many cases could not be proven or justified with documents.

Ferrer-Benimeli In the eighteenth century a smear campaign against the Jesuits was triggered by publishing, once again, two works of the previous century in which the secret has a special importance: the Provincial Letters, by Pascal, and the Monita Secreta Societatis Iesu. The latter were presented as if they were a manuscript dis- covered in the library of the Louis-le-Grand school in Paris; but the Monita Secreta were nothing else but an apocryphal published for the first time in Krakow in despite the imprint with which it appeared , of which, throughout the seventeenth century, dozens of editions had been published in several European na- tions, above all in Germany, France and England.

Its author was no other than a Polish ex-Jesuit, expelled from the Order in , and called Hieronim Za- horowski Sescret Instructions of the Jesuits. Histo- ry of a Conspirational Manual] Lisbon, The same must be said of the nineteenth and even the twentieth centuries, since the «Machiavellian maxims» of the Monita got publications without interruption and with all type of comments and additions.

In his «historical sketch» of the New York edition of , the theologian and member of the «Collegiate Reformed Dutch Church», William Craig Brownlee , had written: When these were first published, the Jesuits were at first overwhelmed with fear. But they immediately affected to be much offended that such rules should be ascribed to them. They publicly denied them. This of course was expected. Every criminal pleads «not guilty». But their authenticity is not for a moment doubted among all scholars, both Papal and Protestant Brownlee, To prepare the campaign that resulted in the decrees of against the Jesuits, the famous edition Rougesang was launched in Ferrer-Benimeli got to record sales of 22, copies, publishing in the nineteenth edition.

Some Freemasons also took part in this anti-Jesuit campaign, which coincided with the years of greatest clerical-anti-Freemasonic and Freema- sonic-anti-clerical confrontation. The publishing success of the Protocols can only be compared with the Monita Secreta since both are still being published today and, what is worse, they are still being read and the contents of both pamphlets is still trusted Ferrer-Benimeli, ; Ferrer-Benimeli Girardet, 36ff.

Being an Accidental Discovery, which were extended in successive editions and to which new contributions were added, such as the brief treatise by Samuel Prichard entitled Masonry Dissected: Being a Universal and Genuine Description of All its Branches from the Original to this Present Time London, Ferrer-Benimeli of slyness, either in its Figaro or Casanova or Gil Blas version, that is, in any case in French version» Vega, I, Lisbon, Imp.

Real, ; v. II, Seville, Imp. In any case, this title serves us as an introduction to go on with the third myth, that of the revolutionary Freemasonic-Jesuit plot. Ferrer-Benimeli Polybe, whose six volumes came out between and Folard denounces «a Jesuit plot» to seize the government not only of France but of all the European States; he announces in date of publication of the fourth volume of the edition of Amsterdam that triumph was near.

But in the same text such plot is attributed to Freemasonry, along with the Jansenists, suggesting some complicity between Jesuits and Freemasons. But it was, mainly, as a result of the Revolution when a great number of publications appear in the form of booklets, pamphlets and polemical books. The theory defended by the author is that the cause of the «present revolutions» is the work of the «iniquitous and formidable conspiracy of the three wicked sects of philosophers, fragmasones [sic] and Jansenists to stir the world, upset the thrones and oppress the religion».

The latter lacks any historical value in its attempt to prove the enmity of Freemasonry with any kind of sovereignty and royalty, as well as its ha- tred of the ecclesiastical power. Ferrer-Benimeli action of the sect of Jacobins, whose aim was to destroy the throne and the altar.

It holds the same theory as the one just mentioned, although in this case the main figures are the Freemasons and mainly the Illuminati of Bavaria. This theory will be reproduced by Lefranc in a second book, Conjuration contre la religion catholique, et les souverains Paris, Returning to the printout confiscated by the Inquisi- tion from the Basque Country in , it can be read, with certain curiosity, that «the league of conspirators against kings» whose motto was: Ennemis du culte et des rois , also called sect, professes a doctrine that is so characteristic and unique that it can be called the Spirit of the Body and the Secret of the Party; but this doc- trine is not taught indiscriminately to all its members, and never to indiscreet persons.

After this «portrait» of Freemasons, equally applica- ble to Jesuits, it talks about the ideology of Freemasons when it is said that, among the fundamental maxims used by the League, there are the following ones: All men are equal; none of them can be their supe- rior nor lead them against their will. All people of the universe cannot belong to a handful of men who are the sovereigns, but rather sovereigns must belong to the crowd, and it can have their fate; people give sovereignty as they understand it and take it again ac- cording to their will Ferrer-Benimeli, , III: ; Ferrer-Benimeli, Toute puissance, se disant spirituelle pour exercer un em- pire plus imposant, est un abus et un attentat.

A Coblentz. This information confirms that the printout had been put into circulation by French emigrants in different European locations. Ferrer-Benimeli We are therefore facing the secret and the theory that justifies a double conspiracy: that of the Jesuits, which is in the cause of their expulsion and subsequent ex- tinction, and that of the Freemasons and Illuminati, attributed some years later by the counter-revolutionary reaction as simplistic explanation of the French Revolu- tion, which contributed to shape the famous «plot».

Curiously, Charles IV himself even wrote to Pius VII in July to accuse the Jesuits and their «impure opinions and handlings» of having been the cause of the French Revolution, so he opposed their restoration. Precisely in the years immediately following the French Revolution there were many ex-Jesuits who, from their respective exiles, helped in spreading this plot theory, closely linked to the attack on the Freema- sons.

In many of them the «secret» is used as an argu- ment to discredit the adversary. This interpretation, of course, was influenced by the French Revolution, which constantly appears as a real obsession, and pointed to the Freemasons as the main causes of the revolutionary process. The prefaces of this work are very eloquent in this sense. This is at the same time an anti-Freemasonic and anti-Jesuit book, with which the author intends to demonstrate a double theory: that Freemasonry took much part in the dissensions and schisms raised against the Christian reli- gion, and that the Jesuits, after their suppression, would have participated in most of the divisions and reprehen- sible innovations.

Thus, for example, talking in par- ticular about Central Europe, he said: «He asserts, that the abolition of the Order of Loyola is only apparent. The Brethren still retain their connection, and most part of their property, under the secret patronage of Catholic Princes» Robison, Mounier was especially valued re- garding his political moderation and his extraordinary capacity for work. His intellectual output was prodigious Craiutu, Ferrer-Benimeli has again gathered great strength among some Catholics and conservative historians.

Among these historians we may mention Gautrelet, Janet Bord, Lannoy, Cochin, Fay, Poncins, Meurin and so many others converted into «ad- versaries collaborators», in the words of F. To the authors above cited it should be added, until now, several Freemasons who were defenders, with equal or greater zeal, of the supposed «great work» performed by Freemasonry as the cause of the Revolution, attitude that no self-respecting historian dares to support anymore Ferrer-Benimeli, b: However, the double Freemasonic-revolutionary myth, on the one hand, and the Jesuit-Freemasonic myth, on the other hand, continued throughout the nineteenth century producing an extensive literature in which the Jesuits openly took sides in their attacks on Freemasonry, while the latter, especially the Latin, continued corresponding to the same extent against the Jesuits; just like in the eighteenth century it was formed the legend that the Jesuits had got into Freema- sonry according to some in order to destroy it, and according to others just to make use of it.

Because this is what has been seen at a same time, in the same body; reason sitting beside fanaticism; virtue beside vice; religion beside impiety; severity beside relaxation; science beside ignorance; the spirit of quietness beside the spirit of conjeture and of intrigue: all the contrasts together. For its part, in publications of ecclesiastical character and even in most profane stories —until a few years ago—, it has been insisted on the same idea of blaming Free- masonry with regard to the expulsion and suppression of the Jesuits; erroneous idea which nowadays has proved to be absolutely false.

Conclusion There are three myths about the secret that tradi- tionally had surrounded Jesuits and Freemasons: that of the Jesuits infiltrated in Freemasonry; that of the secret attributed to Freemasons and Jesuits; and that of the re- volutionary Freemasonic-Jesuit plot. These three myths have generated an extensive literature, very varied in its perspectives and approaches, in which there are coin- cidences and rapprochements, but also estrangements and confrontations.

The second ones more numerous than the former, since coincidences or attempts at rapprochements and understanding were always indi- vidualised and rarely supported by the senior officials of the two institutions. In the nineteenth century, the most striking case was perhaps that of P. Hermann J. But unfortunately, it can be said exactly the same about many other Freemasonic journals of the same centuries, in which the Jesuit ghost is obsessive and constitutes the «enemy» that so many Freemasons needed in order to give sense to a Freemasonic mem- bership devoid of other higher ideals.

Ferrer-Benimeli Bibliography Abt, E. Etudes, Barruel, Augustin Memorias para servir a la histo- ria del Jacobinismo. Imprenta de Felipe Guasp, Palma. Bernard, P. Librairie Bloud, Paris. Voltaire Foundation, Oxford. Picard, Paris. Blum, Jean J. Starck et la querelle du cryptoca- tholicisme en Allemagne, Alcan, Paris. Retaux, Paris. Brownlee, William C.

Auguste Durand, Paris. Lelong, Bruxelles. Prince- ton University Press, Princeton. Desmed, R. Cadre historique et essai de bibliographie critique». Marx, J. Mar- cial Pons, Madrid. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main. Droz, J. Revue Historique Siglo XXI, Madrid. Edizioni Paoline, Roma. Istmo, Madrid. La Propaganda Literaria, La Habana. Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid.

Bureau Central, Paris. Geffarth, Renko D. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden. Gleichen, Charles Henri, baron de Souvenirs. Girardet, Raoul Mythes et mythologies politiques, Seuil, Paris. Aldecoa, Burgos. Guerra, Alessandro Contro lo spirito del secolo: Giovanni Marchetti e la biblioteca della Controrivoluzione. Nuova Cultura, Roma. Higgs, Henry Bibliography of Economics Emo Press, Cambridge.

Ferrer-Benimeli Hoebanx, J. Bibliographie ». Zaragoza, de julio de Mertens et Fils, Bruxelles. Otto Migand, Leipzig. Carl Winter, Heidelberg. Leo S. Olschki, Firenze. Lazzerini, Lucia «Due schede per Pinocchio».

Quaderni Veneti, 3 : Aubier-Montaigne, Louvain. The Dawning of a New Epoch. AuthorHouse, Bloomington. Oliver, George The Revelations of a Square. Richard Spencer, London. Toute la Compagnie. Jesuit Historical Institute, Roma. Les Pays. Jesuit Histori- cal Institute, Roma. Caron, Richard, Peeters, Leuven: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Literaturgeschichte. Ar- chivum Historicum S. Beauchesne, Paris. George Forman, New York. Studien zu Biographie und Werk. Coolen, Bruxelles.

Schuba, E. Simoni, Enrico Bibliografia della massoneria in Italia: indici sistematici degli articoli delle riviste massoniche del dopoguerra per titoli, autori, logge e temi trattati. Bastogi, Foggia. Simoni, Enrico Bibliografia della massoneria in Italia. Appendice di aggiornamento. Friedrich Maurer, Berlin. Frankfurt am Main. Findel, Leipzig. Tilton, Hereward The Quest for the Phoenix. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin. Hieronymus Complutensis, 2: Witte, E.

Nauwe- laerts, Louvain-Paris. Wolfstieg, August Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur. Vereins Deutscher Freimaurer, Burg bei Magdeburg. However, the diversity of schools, rituals and deities hides an essential unity, firmly established by the ancient sages. What was done in those organi- sations?

The same that is done nowadays in Freema- sonry: the dramatisation of some mysteries in which the initiation is granted through an initiatory death and a resurrection in the new life. All these cultures have always had initiatic organisa- tions within which, by means of a ritual, it was trans- mitted a gift, a light and a sacred teaching reserved on- ly for the initiates. The Origins: Mesopotamia and Egypt In our civilisation we find the origins of these tradi- tions in Mesopotamia and Egypt, where more than four thousand years ago already existed very well struc- tured, both formally and doctrinally, manifestations of initiatory schools closely linked to the priestly castes, who were the spiritual and cultural elite of the Antiqui- ty.

Although the texts that remain today of those initia- tory realities are very fragmentary and it is not always easy to understand them, we have enough evidence to glimpse that many fundamental elements of the current Freemasonry are present in the Mesopotamian tablets and in the oldest codices of this area of the world. Among these texts it should be mentioned, firstly, the epic poem called Gilgamesh. In this poem there are passages which accurately allude to a wisdom re- vealed by means of initiatory rituals; for example: «I want to reveal to you, Gilgamesh, a secret word and a secret of the gods».

There is no doubt that the theme of the secret word is significant for Freemasons of all time. We have a text from Sumer, with an age of more than four thousand years, in which it is explained the works of the «Good Shepherd Gudea», ruler of the city of Lagash.

He was favoured by the gods, and received in dreams the divine assignment of building the temple of Eninnu. The Good Shepherd Gudea is called «that one who knows the Word». When the temple is built, one enters the age of concord, the city is purified, the impure and mistrustful are expelled from it and the «rude words» are banned.

The «orphan was neither en- trusted to the rich» nor «the widow […] entrusted to the powerful». Elsewhere it is said that in fact the Eninnu temple has been «rebuilt» Lara-Peinado, 71, In the Sumerian pantheon Enki, the god of the earth and underworld, is called «King of the fixed word», he holds the wisdom and magical actions Lara-Peinado, This god of word is terrestrial, which coin- cides with all the Hermetic and initiatic tradition since heaven does not speak; the regenerated man is the one who owns the creator word, the «fixed» word, that lost word which some Freemasons have found throughout time.

It should be taken into account that Sumerian is the oldest hymnology in history dedicated to gods, thus we see how old are the teachings that the Freemasonic Order has inherit. Texts, that have been preserved, relating to this god refer to a «Word of life», «powerful Word», which is Marduk himself Mayassis, , III: , , But we cannot talk about initiations without referring to Egypt, mother of the Tradition.

The Book of Coming Forth by Day and not the Book of the Dead, as it is erroneously known , is a set of teachings, precepts and rituals that, doubtlessly, make reference to the ancient Egyptian initiations which, as well as all others, consisted in experiencing the initiatory death and being born to a new regenerated life. Its doctrinal body was based on the life, passion, death and resurrection of Osiris, assisted by his sister and wife Isis, the Widow, who after a pitiful journey met with her dead husband, whom she resurrected.

The text is about the journey that the soul of the de- ceased must cross, emulating Osiris; but in fact it is a book of «instructions» for whom, by means of initia- tion, must die in life and go on the journey from dark- ness to light. Osiris says: «The mysteries that are on me produce the metamorphosis», because they are the mysteries of death and resurrection of the God of word in a living man. I insist that only secondarily it is a teaching offered to those who have died of ordinary death, so that they find the path of their salvation.

The aim is the initiation. In the language of hieroglyphics, to initiate is written like to blacken and, by extension, it also means to die. The so-called «Egyptian art» should be read from this perspective if we want to understand something of its real function and of its deeper meaning.

The animals that we, still today, can gaze at sometimes represent different stages of the initiatory journey; a child with his thumb in his mouth or sucking the breast of a goddess are hieroglyphs for initiation and resurrection. It seems that in Egyptian cults of Isis the «banquet of Anubis» was celebrated, in which a form of transubstan- tiation of wine into «blood of Osiris» was carried out Mayassis, , I: Smith wrote about it: The blood of Osiris was a great charm, which, poured in a cup of wine, made Isis drinking it feel love for him in her heart.

When the blood could not be procured, its place was taken by simple wine, con- secrated by this hocus-pocus said seven times: «Thou art wine and not wine but the head of Athene. Thou art wine and not wine, but the bowels of Osiris» Smith, It was said that Orpheus had brought the mysteries from Egypt, and the Greeks themselves affirmed that the initiatory rites of Osiris and Isis were those of Dionysus and Demeter Colli, , I: What did these organisations or the Pythagorean brotherhoods do in their temples?

The same as Sume- rians and Egyptians did: to grant an initiation through a secret death and a resurrection in the new life. These are still the fundamental themes of the Pythagorean Chapel of the Porta Maggiore in Rome, already in later times: the first century BC.

Nevertheless, the best known of the Greek mystery schools is that of Eleusis Eleusis means «the good news». It is a cult whose origins are probably distant, pre- Hellenic. The hymn dedicated to Demeter talks about its founding. This hymn dates from the seventh century or the beginning of the sixth century BC, and it is the oldest evi- dence we have.

According to this hymn, Demeter is the goddess who taught the orgiastic rites that «cannot be transgressed or […] even uttered» Colli, , I: Ritual Practices In the mysteries of Sabazios, which is one of the names of Dionysus, the candidates for initiation were smeared with mud and bran i. In the ritual Sabazios was invoked and the neophyte said: «I escaped the bad, I found the better» Freyburger-Galland et al.

In this sense Seaford points out: Another fourth-century indication of wine-drinking in mystic initiation is provided by an attack by Demos- thenes Perhaps it belonged to a synthesis of the two gods, facilitated by the associa- tion of both gods with Phrygia Seaford, As it happens today among Freemasons, the neo- phyte also contemplated a light when he was initiated.

It is said that Plutarch c. It can be compared, for example, with «the man who makes progress in vir- tue is finally compared to the one who is initiated into the Mysteries and has seen a great light» Van Der Stockt, , I: In the Eleusinian Mysteries it was usual that the candidate were introduced for some time in a dark place until, after passing several tests and purifications including those of water and air, he was asked to con- template a light, a phallus or an ear of wheat Colli, , I: 35, 82 , or maybe these three.

In Themistocles, Plutarch mentions a great light flamed out from Eleusis. Apuleius AD was one of the authors ac- cused in his time of publishing what was improper. In his celebrated work Metamorphoses or The Golden Ass [Metamorphoseos or Asinus aureus] he sums up, in this way, what the mystery of initiation was: «the en- trance into this religion has to be celebrated by way of a voluntary death and an eternal salvation obtained by grace» XI, 3, Below he refers to the central mo- ment of the initiation with these words in this case it is the mysteries of Isis, as they were celebrated in Rome at that time : know that I approached the confines of death, and having trodden on the threshold of Proserpine [the initiatory underworld], I returned from it, being carried through all the elements.

At midnight I saw the sun shining with a splendid light [Apuleius, XI, 3, 23]. The mystery religions passed from Greece to Rome, and in the Roman Empire initiatory schools of all kinds proliferated, both of Greek and Egyptian origin. The Egyptian god Serapis was compared to the Sun and al- so to Jupiter. The basket or grain measure calatus , was the symbol of this god Freyburger-Galland et al.

Calatus solis terram alentis naturam. As it is done nowadays in Freemasonry, certain words and signs, only known by them, were commu- nicated to initiates. Plautus makes one of his characters say: «Give me the sign if you are one of the Bacchae!

In Mil. Glor it is said: cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es […]. Literally it is said: «If you really are one of the Bacchae, give me the password» […] the password used in the Bacchic Mysteries for the recognition of the initiates Marcos- Casquero, In the Eleusinian Mysteries it was carried out a «pu- rification of the hands», which is undoubtedly closely connected with the use of white gloves by Freemason brethren, since they cannot work in a Freemasonic way in the building of the temple without having their senses purified; the hand is the hieroglyph for the senses.

In the Mithraic Mysteries the candidates were led blindfolded through dark passages, where they felt the proximity of a fire that they could not see. They heard strange noises, roars of lions, they were blown with canes, etc. They were also locked in a sepulchre, from where they were later got out by the liberator Frey- burger-Galland et al. As in the Eleusinian Mysteries, the initiatory experience culminated with the contemplation of the ear, a symbol not only of the resurrection the grain dies so that from its seed the new plant can begin to grow , but also of the transmission, represented by the multiplication of the grain in the ear.

Hence the importance given to trans- mission, since if there are no initiates in the world, humankind is then separated from divinity, it becomes orphan and widow again; it wanders eternally in an endless night. After contemplating the ear —or it being handed over to him—, the neophyte from the Greek neophitos, i.

In these societies an oath was taken, silence was required of the initiate and there were teachings contained in certain books reserved only for members of the secret society Philosophumena V, 23; Legge, , I: The diversity of schools, rites and divinities that formed the initiatory world of the antiquity hides, however, an essential unity, since the different mystery societies were perfectly constructed and soundly founded.

In addition, there is something that should be taken into account, given that in modern Freemasonry there is a strong insistence on the moral content of the Or- der, which is very little, or it is not at all, consistent with the initiatory mystery.

Morality is essential, but it is not initiatory. We must insist, therefore, that the rites and doctrines of regeneration were established by the wise philosophers neither to propose for us a moral, nor to reveal us certain astronomical and mathematical or «scientific» mysteries, but to offer us the ability to escape alive from this world, linking ourselves to the ancient initiatory chain which, from the origins of the erudite humanity, binds us again to the only Gnosis.

Then the goddess Hecate gave birth to Brimo, the holy child Colli, , I: It is also a clear reference to the initiation or beginning of the first alchemical operation, consisting in fixing and giving shape to the rain, which is a light and igneous air, and which we can compare with the alchemical process called solve. Only who has access to this mystery will be able to complete the Great Work, to transmit their heritage to a disciple and to save those who are bound again to him.

I take the second example from the Greek Dionysian Bacchanalia, where Bacchus was called «hunter of the Bacchae» and «skilful hunter». The Bacchae embody the lightness of air, the vulgar mercury of the alchemists, so Euripides calls them «of light foot» [The Bacchae, ].

In those ceremonies the male goat practised as Bacchus, and witches personified the Bacchae: How can it be that their descriptions evoke with cer- tain precision the glass of the alchemists in the first operation? That light of the diabolic horn horned? As regards the in cauda dorsi kiss, let us remember that it was also part of the ritual of initiation of the Templars and that its meaning is re- lated as well to the ancient mysteries that have sur- vived so long in Christian Europe, in a popular secre- cy Hooghvorst, , I: In French cornue also means «retort».

This author explains that the Shabbat of the Hebrew religion should not be confused with the Sabbath of witchcraft, since this term comes from Greek Sabazios, which is one of the names of Bacchus. Who could suspect that ancient Bacchanalian preserved in Europe until modern times are dramatisations in which it is repre- sented the secret operations of the Great Work of the Hermetic philosophers?

However, in order to recog- nise the sacred in the deceitful images of the rite and of the symbols, it must be known indeed what does the mystery of human regeneration consists in and have experienced it. The Sacred Banquets The banquet was the central part of the Mithraic cult and its initiatory system was organised in seven degrees. From the dorsal spine of Mithra the wheat is born, and from his blood the sacred wine of the mys- teries. The Mithraic associations were integrated into the sodalicia, religious and professional corporations of the Roman Empire.

Mithra means «friend». Mithraism was a cult of ancient oriental origin; it probably existed in the fourteenth century BC. The sacred banquets were almost always included in the different rituals of mystery societies, communal meal that was and is the image of a theophagy in which friends and companions of the master share the bread of life that he has prepared. Freemasons have kept alive this very ancient tradition, which Catholi- cism incorporated into the Mass as a central part of its ritual.

Agape [banquet, feast] is a Greek word meaning both «fraternal meal» and «love» Grayling, In all of them banquets were celebrated as part of the rituals. In those of Mithra we find the cup of wine and the bread, and in the Bacchic cults they ate and drank wine. Among the Pythagoreans a sacrifice was made before the banquet Freyburger-Galland et al. We also read in Smith: The sacramental banquet, however, was also a love- feast, done in remembrance of the supper celebrated by the sun before his ascension.

It could only be partaken of after long initiation, and was rightly regarded at Rome as «a magical meal» […]. Tertullian also noted the resemblance, so dangerous for simple souls, between Mithraism and Christianity Smith, The Dramatisation of the Mysteries Our ancestors conceived a way, both effective and brilliant, to make the candidates live the mysteries of ini- tiation. Since true initiation is a sensitive, physical expe- rience, it is necessary that the trance lived throughout the ritual be so in spirit and in body.

The new neophyte is thus integrated into the organisation and his initiation has the same standing that the organisa- tion has: if, as usually happened, the mystery society was a living Order because one or various of its founders or members were true initiates, he was then bound again to these wise and he was thus in a posi- tion to access the true initiation, of which the ritual dramatisation was a very reliable image.

It is precisely the accuracy of this dramatisation which «betrays» an initiatic order, since it reveals the nobility of its origin and the fact of having maintained forms and contents unaltered. If there have been made changes and inno- vations —something that has happened too many times because of the good or bad intentioned ignorant—, those who know from experience the mystery of initia- tion are perfectly aware of where the error, the devia- tion, the changes or the suspicious elements are.

In the Dionysian cults there took place a dramatisa- tion of the mysteries, focusing on the crime committed by the Titans when they dismembered Dionysus, and initiates were enjoined to meditate on those teachings. In the cults of Isis it was dramatised the life, passion, death and resurrection of Osiris, assisted by his sister and wife Isis. In Eleusis the secrets of initiation were also drama- tised; in this case the officiants represented the sacred copulation between Zeus and Demeter sky and earth.

The fruit of this union was the myste, the initiate, son of gods and not of flesh. In the orgiastic rites devoted in Phrygia to the mys- teries of Cybele and Attis, the goddess was represented looking for her lover Attis, and it was prepared a fune- real bed around which the faithful were mourning with lugubrious cries. Afterwards the resurrection of Attis was celebrated with great signs of joy Freyburger- Galland et al.

Pythagoreans and Orphics dramatised their own variants of initiatory mysteries. At present experts agree that we must look for the origins of theater in the dramatisation of the ancient mysteries Jeanmaire, But it should be specified that the initiatory mysteries are not only in the origin of the theater, but also in the most elevated forms of human expression, that which we call culture.

Poetry has also initiatory origin; the texts by Hesiod, by Homer and the hymns that founded the Greek mythology —that is, its religion— are the work of poets, but of inspired poets, possessors of enthousiasmos, word that in Greek means «inspiration» and «being possessed by the force of a god».

Poets were the prophets. The same script was originally created and used to transmit the word of God to men through the prophets-poets; the letters were hieroglyphs, what is an example of Hebrew script. Somehow, it could be said that our most genuine and essential civilising elements actually come from topics extracted from the sacred sphere and con- verted into cultural manifestations such as profane poetry and literature, theater, plastic arts and dance, which can be extended to other forms of artistic expression.

Symbolism in Freemasonry One of the peculiarities of Freemasonry is that its language is symbolic. Each of the elements of a lodge, the tools, objects, aprons, etc. This meaning refers to a fundamental idea for the old thinking, which Plato expresses in the Symposium.

Here he says that, before being expelled from heaven, human beings were androgynous and immortal, but we were prey to an immense pride, we rebelled against the gods and Zeus split us into two parts and expelled us to this world, which is our exile. This way of explaining the divided state in which we find ourselves is a teaching that should lead us to understand that without the help of Zeus the father God we cannot be reintegrated to paradise or to the Elysian Fields.

Hence the need for the initiation, that restores the ancient human nature and reintegrates it to the world of the immortals. Thus, the Freemason represents the true initiate who has re- covered the lost unity and has joined divinity thanks to the god Eros, as Plato says: There was a time, I say, when we were one, but now because of the wickedness of mankind God has dis- persed us […].

Wherefore let us exhort all men to pi- ety, that we may avoid evil, and obtain the good, of which Love [Eros] is to us the lord and minister; […] For if we are friends of the God and at peace with him we shall find our own true loves, which rarely happens in this world at present.

The Legends of the Origins There is a very old tradition that was applied to both the origins of cities and of countries or empires: they are the legends of the origins. Its essential elements were preserved in the texts written among the sixteenth, seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a part of which would be collected in the Constitutions by James Anderson. This tradition was basically of oral origin, transmitted within the medieval Freemasonry.

The tendency to write and, afterwards, to publish everything characteristic of the initiatory world still had not a deep impact on Western culture, and it was still alive the Platonic precept of entrusting the secrets to the memory and not to the writing Plato, Seventh Letter, c.

In the preface of the classic book by William J. Hughan, The Old Charges of British Free- masons, it can be read: The Constitutions seem in fact, to be clearly derived from the Masonic Poem, though naturally altered in their prose form, and expanded and modified through transmission, and oral tradition, as well as by the lapse of time, and the change of circumstances Hughan, XIII.

Regarding the term legenda, let us remember that it comes from the Latin lego, «read», «gather», and that until the early nineteenth century it simply meant a thing to be read, and it had not the current connotation of invented story, myth or false thing. Now, it should be well read, well understood.

In summary, what did those legends say? That the origin of Freemasonry was not human but divine, be- cause they were the great masters of humankind, the great inspired sages as Euclid, Pythagoras, Hermes, Solomon and the Biblical prophets who created the Royal Art, Geometry or Freemasonry, since all of them come to be the same thing.

That is precisely why the Order was sacred and not profane: its origin was supra-human. In the past it had other names, but it was always Freemasonry, initiatory mystery. Therefore, there was a genealogy thanks to which, through generations, the initiates had transmitted the secrets of the initiatory death and of the new life. This sacred legacy, which from the origins of civilisation lasted until Modernity, was not the vulgar creation of one or more men who would have invented the Free- masonic doctrines, but it was the treasure transmitted by a chain of sage masters, a golden affiliation of supe- rior men.

In addition, these stories contained secret teachings, inaccessible for the profane people, concealed under the veil of the rituals, allegories and legends. Let us look at some examples gathered from the aforementioned Constitu- tions by Anderson: Adam, our first parent, created after the Image of God, the Great Architect of the Universe, must have had the Liberal Sciences, particularly Geometry, written on his Heart Anderson, Thus we, children of Adam, have also inscribed on our hearts the secret place where life resides the germ of all sciences and sacred arts which will rebuild the new life; and the true initiation makes that this new temple germinate and grow within us, or that the lost word be rediscovered and realised.

Let us consider this other excerpt of the Constitu- tions: «Our Father Noah next appeared, a Mason too divinely taught; and by divine Command upreared the Ark […]. It was built by true Geometry» Anderson, It seems to me that these passages have quite obvious Kabbalistic and Hermetic contents —definitely initiatory contents—. This way of explaining the divided state in which we find ourselves is a teaching that should lead us to understand that without the help of Zeus the father God we cannot be reintegrated to paradise or to the Elysian Fields.

Hence the need for the initiation, that restores the ancient human nature and reintegrates it to the world of the immortals. Thus, the Freemason represents the true initiate who has re- covered the lost unity and has joined divinity thanks to the god Eros, as Plato says: There was a time, I say, when we were one, but now because of the wickedness of mankind God has dis- persed us […]. Wherefore let us exhort all men to pi- ety, that we may avoid evil, and obtain the good, of which Love [Eros] is to us the lord and minister; […] For if we are friends of the God and at peace with him we shall find our own true loves, which rarely happens in this world at present.

The Legends of the Origins There is a very old tradition that was applied to both the origins of cities and of countries or empires: they are the legends of the origins. Its essential elements were preserved in the texts written among the sixteenth, seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a part of which would be collected in the Constitutions by James Anderson.

This tradition was basically of oral origin, transmitted within the medieval Freemasonry. The tendency to write and, afterwards, to publish everything characteristic of the initiatory world still had not a deep impact on Western culture, and it was still alive the Platonic precept of entrusting the secrets to the memory and not to the writing Plato, Seventh Letter, c. In the preface of the classic book by William J.

Hughan, The Old Charges of British Free- masons, it can be read: The Constitutions seem in fact, to be clearly derived from the Masonic Poem, though naturally altered in their prose form, and expanded and modified through transmission, and oral tradition, as well as by the lapse of time, and the change of circumstances Hughan, XIII. Regarding the term legenda, let us remember that it comes from the Latin lego, «read», «gather», and that until the early nineteenth century it simply meant a thing to be read, and it had not the current connotation of invented story, myth or false thing.

Now, it should be well read, well understood. In summary, what did those legends say? That the origin of Freemasonry was not human but divine, be- cause they were the great masters of humankind, the great inspired sages as Euclid, Pythagoras, Hermes, Solomon and the Biblical prophets who created the Royal Art, Geometry or Freemasonry, since all of them come to be the same thing. That is precisely why the Order was sacred and not profane: its origin was supra-human.

In the past it had other names, but it was always Freemasonry, initiatory mystery. Therefore, there was a genealogy thanks to which, through generations, the initiates had transmitted the secrets of the initiatory death and of the new life.

This sacred legacy, which from the origins of civilisation lasted until Modernity, was not the vulgar creation of one or more men who would have invented the Free- masonic doctrines, but it was the treasure transmitted by a chain of sage masters, a golden affiliation of supe- rior men. In addition, these stories contained secret teachings, inaccessible for the profane people, concealed under the veil of the rituals, allegories and legends. Let us look at some examples gathered from the aforementioned Constitu- tions by Anderson: Adam, our first parent, created after the Image of God, the Great Architect of the Universe, must have had the Liberal Sciences, particularly Geometry, written on his Heart Anderson, Thus we, children of Adam, have also inscribed on our hearts the secret place where life resides the germ of all sciences and sacred arts which will rebuild the new life; and the true initiation makes that this new temple germinate and grow within us, or that the lost word be rediscovered and realised.

Let us consider this other excerpt of the Constitu- tions: «Our Father Noah next appeared, a Mason too divinely taught; and by divine Command upreared the Ark […]. It was built by true Geometry» Anderson, It seems to me that these passages have quite obvious Kabbalistic and Hermetic contents —definitely initiatory contents—. Our ancestors were old, but not silly. Here, as in many other biblical passages, the impossible in the natural order is used to imply that it is not referring to realities of this world, but of the hereafter.

Facing the two sciences, one of them profane and the other one sacred, yesterday like today the Freema- sons who are aware of their condition must wonder: What does rule my Freemasonic life? In other words, which knowledge will really transform me, the profane or the sacred? And where is the dividing line between the profane and the sacred? Modernity has blurred the boundaries between them, and as a consequence it has reduced or distorted the first and strong sense of initiatory doctrines, and has ele- vated the postulates of profane science, which is an ever- changing science, to the category of absolute truths.

In addition, from the late eighteenth century the rules of the ancient hermeneutics have been forgotten or, at least, they have been relegated to the field of marginal and anachronistic thinking, which has generated count- less lack of understandings, and hence the contempt for the legendary and traditional discourse of Freemasonry. That deviation finished its development throughout the nineteenth century, particularly within the Latin Freemasonry, which aspired to become the great de- fender of freedom, secularism and social progress of humankind.

The prejudice against the «dark» Middle Ages was very influential; it made that the medieval Freemasons were understood as simple people, with- out culture and victims of religious superstitions. This question is dealt with in an unsigned contribution about the his- torical existence of Jesus Christ according to the jour- nal of Madrid Latomia, II, : In order to judge whether what is said in the Gospels is about a man or about a God, it is necessary to get in touch with the text […].

It is necessary to be dis- possessed of any religious sense in order to not notice that this story expresses a truth and not a fact. The Lord Jesus is the Resurrection and the Life. The Freemasonic Synthesis The doctrinal and symbolic body of Freemasonry is the result of a synthesis developed from the ancient Western Wisdom, whose profound meaning is initiato- ry.

The Chamber of Reflection and the journeys of the candidate in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite are inspired by alchemy vitriol, mercury, sulphur, salt, and the four elements. The sacred and the secret words are Hebrew, whose meaning is Kabbalistic. The numeral system and elements such as Delta are taken from Pythagoreanism. Freemasonic science which is the Royal Art , its practices and its doctrines are based on Hermeticism, a term that describes all the ancient and traditional sciences whose aim is the restoration of man to his first state.

Let us now look at the meaning of some of the main symbols, concepts and elements characteristic of Free- masonry, analysed from the traditional exegesis. Not only in the Hindu tradition, but also in the Popol Vuh the creator God is called Architect, Builder; and the concept is neither foreign to the Bible. Plato referred to the creator as Geometrician, and had inscribed above the entrance to his Academy: «Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here».

Naturally, it refers to the sacred geometry, that of the philosophers, and not the profane, although old authors alchemists, Kabbalists, etc. In the Philebus 56e, 57b-d, 61d-e the Greek philoso- pher wrote that under the name of geometry two sciences are designated: a vulgar one, employed by construction, and another one, superior, «employed by philosophy»: That there are two arts of arithmetic, and two of men- suration; and also several other arts which in like manner have this double nature, and yet only one name.

There was also supposed to be a difference in sci- ences; some of them regarding only the transient and perishing, and others the permanent and imperishable and everlasting and immutable 61d-e. The Greek philosopher gives us in this passage an essential hermeneutical key to read and fully un- derstand the ancient Freemasonic texts. Everything must be read in an initiatory style, otherwise we will not perceive more than its profane, exterior and su- perficial aspect.

And, of course, this also applies to all the revealed texts. However, Anderson himself includes brief but clear references to two different aspects of the One God: «the God of heaven, the Omnipotent Great Architect of the Universe», which could be understood as the creator God of everything that exists. The other aspect is defined as the «Messiah of God, the Great Architect of the Church», which is the God incarnated in a man, since the place of the Temple is in the sanctified man and, therefore, the builder of the Temple could be none other than a true Messiah, in this case, Christ.

Who else can create the new life and make it grow but the Great Architect of the Universe? Every construction is earthly, human. Let us remember the famous images contained in some medieval Bibles, where Christ can be seen as Great Architect of the Universe or Geometrician, in- troducing order into chaos, i. He takes the beings out of the chaos and converts them into cosmos, that is why we have evolved from the profane chaos to the Freemasonic cosmos and we belong to an Order: we are ordered.

It is Wisdom incarnated in a man but the world is the man , the Wisdom that builds or rebuilds the temple, since heaven does not speak or has any weight if it is not in a human being. The origin of this iconography dedicated to the builder God could be in the passage of Proverbs , where we read Wisdom speaks : «The Lord YHVH [Yahveh] possessed me at the beginning of his work […].

When he drew a circle on the face of the depth». And he adds be- low: «when he strengthened the fountains of the deep». It is the creator architect who shall open our abysmal chaos, arrange it and rebuild the temple. Other biblical passages refer to the creator God with terms taken from geometry and architecture, as in the book of Job : «[YHVH] He has inscribed a cir- cle on the face of the waters at the boundary between light and darkness.

Our Creator God, to whose glory we work, create the new world, which is the man, with a material that is he himself: the light and its origin, the fire. As it is said, light in the form of fire is from God. Fire encompasses light; if there is fire, there should be also light» Abera, The Compasses As regards to the compasses, it is a universal symbol that has always been associated with the measure, with the act of putting limits which, in traditional her- meneutics, means to embody, to fix.

The compasses fixes or embodies heaven and doing so it orders the chaos of our imperfect creation. It is an emblem of the creator and construction activity. The word compasses comes from Vulgar Latin com- passare, which means «to measure with a compass», and has its origin in the Latin cum-passus, «with step».

One way of measuring the earth is by taking steps, and two legs open reproduce the figure of the compasses. According to Wilmshurst, «the square is the emblem of the soul; the compasses of the Spirit which indwells in that soul» Wilmshurst, The Three Dots It is an omnipresent symbol in Freemasonic texts, both doctrinal and administrative, which consists of three points sorted in a triangle shape.

This succinct and geometric form of representing God may have its origins in Egyptian hieroglyphs. The three dots are also a way of representing the Greek letter delta, which is a geometric image of God. This symbol is so powerful that it can mean anything and even replace important words, enhancing their meaning […] The three points also are said to refer to the past, when early lodges were governed by triads of masters Berloquin, Its origin is biblical, although Isis was called «the widow».

There are quite a lot references to the widow in both the Old and New Testament. In 1 Kings , Elijah returns to life the son of the widow of Zarephath. For his part, Jesus Christ returns to life the son of the widow of Nain Luke Thus, the Freemason is the prototype of the son resur- rected by a true Master. We all are divided beings in this world of exile, since we are deprived of our half, which we lost be- cause of our fall or «expulsion» from paradise, as Plato and the Scriptures, always present in the mysteries of Freemasonry, remind us.

The Creator Word The existence of Freemasonry is closely linked to the Hebrew Kabbalah, whose heritage is evident in the use of words and names of God that are present in the rituals of the different degrees and in all of the Freemasonic Rites and systems, both ancient and modern.

Each level has a sacred word and a secret word, although in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite the first degree has no secret word, so that the Entered Apprentice uses the only word that has received, the sacred one, to enter the temple. Most of these words are Hebrew and have main- tained their phonetics in this language until now, although sometimes significant changes occur, in many cases due to ignorance of the Jewish language.

They have been maintained in their original language be- cause in this way they preserve their power; they cannot be translated into another language without losing their effectiveness since they are not of human invention: they belong to a sacred language. Socrates would say through Plato that the names of the gods are eternal, and are the correct «by na- ture and not by convention». This reason is enough for not altering the sacred names, as Freema- sonry has done. The word is a creator; it has a primal strength that comes from the inside of the man, from his god.

Thanks to this divine origin, naming entails activating the very substance of that which is named. Talking is to revive, to update strengths, qualities and states of the divinity, where there is no separation between the name and the named. Knowing the name of things is to access their most intimate substance, their secret nature.

However, the human being is cognisable by having a non-arbitrary sign identifica- tion, which is the divine particle they contain, i. God in man, which is the lost word of Freemasonry. Therefore, if we connect the letter, first ele- ment of writing, to the syllable, first element of spoken language, both would be equivalent to the first material with which the temple is built. The Entered Apprentice can only spell, since he is in the beginning of the Work and therefore he does not speak; that is, the inner word has not yet been mani- fested in him.

For that reason he greets with a sign called «guttural». He knows the basic elements that compose it, the letters; he knows the first material of the creation, but he has not yet brought it to perfec- tion. Thus, the Entered Apprentice must learn to read himself and to say himself, since it is in his own land where the word is interred. The Entered Apprentice has received a gift from heaven that must be performed on him, since —the Hermeticists affirm— it is a process by which the initial gift takes shape and solidifies until its complete purity, to assume later its verbal and glorious strength, for the mysteries of Freemasonry are also those of alchemy.

Corporal Mysteries The Freemasonic gestures and signs are all referred to the body, since the mysteries of regeneration are corpo- ral. They are the divine substance and the essence in man the ones that must be regenerated, which is taught in the ancient texts of Freemasonry. The same manuscript says below: «What is the length of your rope?

We must not forget this fundamental aspect of Freemasonic doctrines, although it is only known and experienced by the true initiate, since there is a sacred anatomy, a place where the divine light is embodied and thus is born a new life within the old man. It is the culmination of the Mastery.

We read in St. Paul 1 Co- rinthians and 50 : «What is sown is perisha- ble; what is raised is imperishable. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. The Rough Ashlar and the Perfect Ashlar The perfect and the rough ashlar are always present in the lodge, and symbolise the work of human regeneration to which the Freemason aspires.

In this context Walter L. Wilmshurst points out: «but have lost the magic key to open the door into the Herme- tic garden. Afterwards it must be polished or refined so that it becomes pyramidal. Paul writes: «So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God, built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone» Ephesians If we transfer the Freemasonic doctrine to the theo- logical language, we say that the perfect ashlar is called Virgin Mary, not because it is necessarily a woman, but because it is the first stage of regeneration, a mystery called «feminine».

Its culmination is Christ, the «male» state, the Word, the pyramidal stone. To say that the Virgin Mary is the perfect ashlar is not a piece of nonsense because, although Christian iconography is not rich in cubic images of virgins, it is so the wise Greek tradition with the goddess Cybele. The son of this cubic virgin is the Word, the lost and rediscovered word, or the pyramidal stone of the master.

Thus, the three Freemasonic degrees contain the whole mystery of Christianity and of the alchemical regeneration. Perhaps without knowing it Freemasons have perpetuated until nowadays the Marian tradition of Catholicism. All of the rites affirm that it is the building or re- building of the Temple, and this building is based on names of God, or on the Name of God. What is more, it could be said that it is the Name of God itself the one which must be rebuilt or reunified; for that reason the lost word is one of the themes that are essential and richer in symbols and Hermetic allusions and which Freemasonry still preserves.

And which is the sacred place where it is built? In the temple in ruins of humankind, from whose foundations it must be rebuilt. The sites of the ancient abode of God are in the human being, one has to go down to these abando- ned ruins to rebuild the temple, one has to visit these sites to find the abandoned word.

Solomon orders Hiram to build the temple, since the Hebrew Kabbalah, with which Freemasonry is completely imbued, will say that the gift of God descends to this world in order to become incar- nate in man and to rebuild him. Paul also re- fers to the builder God, of whom he says Hebrews : «For he was looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God.

In the Freemasonry of the eighteenth century, when the Freemason received the Word of Master, Hiram was straightened and he resurrected Reghini, This aspect of the ritual came from the Middle Ages and indi- cated that we must be rebuilt thanks to the rediscovered or reunified Name of God. Here Hiram can be compared to Osiris as well as to Christ resurrected in the man.

When in the ancient Freemasonic rituals of the third degree it is said that «a corpse awaits the resurrection», it alludes to this word, to this Hiram or Osiris-Christ in his tomb who resurrects to complete the true creation, the work of God, whose mysteries are masterly repre- sented in the different Rites of Freemasonry.

In the Dumphries MS, of c. All this is dramatised in Freemasonic rituals and its essential elements have survived throughout the centu- ries as memento and teaching, as exhortation to wis- dom and as magic act aimed at updating the mystery of the creator word in the Freemason. The light we see is like the dark part of the real light, and its source, the Sun, also hides this sacred light and its origin, which is the fire of God, as Egyp- tians and Greeks affirmed.

But there is another light, another Sun that is hidden in the human being and is precisely the aim of the initiation, since it is not the man of the external senses who is initiated, but the so- lar, interior man, that who has a hidden Sense that must be restored. Paul will say, as true initiate, «But we have the Nous [sense, intelligence, mind, soul] of Christ» 1 Corinthians About this divine light, Seneca wrote in his Philosophical Treatises: God is near you, he is with you, he is within you.

Just as the rays of the sun do indeed touch the earth, but still abide at the source from which they are sent; even so the great and hallowed soul, which has come down in order that we may have a nearer knowledge of divinity, does indeed associate with us, but still cleaves to its origin Epist. The mystery of the birth of this light in man is a physical, sensitive but secret experien- ce, which is dramatised in the Freemasonic initiation in the most impressive possible way, in a path from dark- ness to light.

Let us look at three examples of the emergence of the light. The first one that we will quote is the Corpus Hermeticum, where a testimony of the initiatory, bright and inner experience appears. Poimandres tells the ini- tiate: «Do you understand what that vision means?

This light goes to the man who receives it and switches on the light that sleeps within him; that is what the enlighten- ment entails. The Book of Genesis alludes to the same initiatory mystery in the passage that says: «Let there be light, and there was light» By these words it must be understood that there was light in a man, since the Hebrew Kabbalists explain that the Genesis does not talk about the vulgar creation, about this fallen world, but about a pure creation, which is that of the new man, born not of the flesh, but of the Spirit.

Thus, in each ini- tiation we emulate the Book of Genesis: light is made in a man; he is created again, he dies as a profane and is born as a Freemason into the new life. In Freemasonry, all of the lodges are called of Saint John; therefore, there are reasons to believe that there is an important affinity between this Gospel and Free- masonic doctrines Naudon, It is precisely about the importance given to light as a manifestation of the Word, i.

In him was life, and the life was the light of men […]. The Word was the true light […] And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us» John These first verses in John contains the whole mystery of Freema- sonic initiation and also its aim: to receive the light of God, which is the pure life, and to incarnate it in us in order to become, in this way, «children of God» , to give testimony to it, to manifest it throughout the world and to transmit this word to a disciple so that the Order remain alive.

In fact, every Freemason is a light that has been engendered by God the Father, source of Light, because of that all of the Freemasons are brothers. Saint Paul also expressed himself in these terms: «But you are not in darkness, brothers, […] For you are all children of light». It is evident that Freemasonic doctrines of light are very close to the text of John, and all the Freemasons should aspire to be true children of the light, and not only the symbol or the image of it. This is the key so that the Order of the square and the compasses does not languish drowsy among philosophical, moral, social or political discourses.

The aforementioned Louis Cattiaux dealt with this problem in a letter to his friends: it can commonly be seen in [initiatory] Churches and societies that initiation communicated by a experien- cer becomes a dead letter and is transmitted as such for an indefinite time, until an individual of the group or alien to it captures by divine inspiration the sense of symbols and rituals, experience them and then restores them in their primitive purity, which is the primary tradition Cattiaux, Bibliography Abera, Mathewos T.

Kier, Buenos Aires. Ediciones Siruela, Madrid. Sterling Publishing, New York. Edimaf, Paris. Berthelot, Marcellin Collection des anciens al- chimistes grecs. Georges Steinheil, Paris. Arola Editors, Tarragona. Beya Editions, Grez- Doiceau Brabante. Trotta, Madrid. Foucault, Michel Las palabras y las cosas. Freyburger-Galland, Marie L. Les Belles Lettres, Paris.

Akal, Madrid. Ariel, Barcelona. Hughan, William J. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. Arola, Tarragona. Los Libros de la Catarata, Madrid. Translated by Enrique A. Ramos Jurado, Gredos, Madrid. Jeanmaire, Henri Dionysos: histoire du culte de Bacchus. Kirk, G. Cambridge University Press, London. Cilindros A y B de Gudea. Legge, F. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London.

Payot, Paris. Miner- va. Dervy- Livres, Paris. Etude critique et initiatique. Del Siglo de las Luces a la actualidad, ed. Seaford, Richard Dyonisos. Routledge, New York. Segal, Robert A. Mouton de Gruyter, New York. The Monist, 28 2 : Turcan, Robert Los cultos orientales en el mundo romano. Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid, Wilmshurst, Walter L. In the late nineteenth century, it only remained of it the island of Cuba in America and the Philippine archipela- go in Asia.

Vidal, Since the creation of the known as Freemasonic «myth» in Spain, driven by Catholic and conservative groups, Freemasonry has been blamed for the worst events in Spanish History, starting from its conception as unpatriotic association.

This essay tries to make an approach to the causes that contributed to support this idea, its use in the propa- ganda developed by the Catholic and right-wing press during the Republican regime and its influence on the ideological division that promoted the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

Since the first pontifical condemnation of Pope Clement XII in , to its anti-Catholic character Freemasonry has added other aspects that have gra- dually formed the Freemasonic «myth» that still per- sists until now. To its conception as a revolutionary, satanic and dark organisation, the propaganda, mainly Catholic, continued adding other features such as the connection with Judaism and Communism.

This gave Freemasonry the vision of the «anti-Spain», which was so exploited by the Catholic and conservative propa- ganda during the Second Spanish Republic and which contributed, to a great extent, both to the atmosphere of growing edginess that would result in the Spanish Civil War and to the subsequent maintenance of the so-called «Judeo-Freemasonic-Communist conspiracy» during Francoism Ferrer-Benimeli, Precisely, this is the key stage for the beginning of this study, since it is from this moment when a new concept is coined, which would be added to the Freemasonic «myth»: that of the representation of the «anti-Homeland».

The reasons are found in the origin of the institution in Spain, as it is introduced with the French troops, since Napoleon used it as a method to spread revolutionary ideas among his army. The connection with the intruder converted it into an anti-Spanish organisa- tion, identified with the enemy; therefore the Spanish affiliated to it, together with their condition of Frenchi- fied, would be labelled as bad patriots and «traitors».

From this moment, Freemasonry became to be re- garded as an enemy association of the homeland, which would act against the national interest and would be representative of everything opposite to na- tional traditions and essence. This idea would lead the conservative propaganda to attribute to it the responsi- bility for all the negative historical events, such as the colonial loss, both during the reign of Ferdinand VII and that of In short, a group of terms whose aim was to cause the rejection of the readers and to alert them of danger, but which would be pre- served thereafter in the «anti-Freemasonic» language used in the propaganda.

But, undoubtedly, the most significant thing is that to the incipient anti-Freemasonic propaganda, a new ele- ment such as the press was added, so important for the spreading of ideas and opinions, but mainly for the for- mation of public opinion. From this moment on the press would become one of the preferred media for spreading the «myth», especially thanks to the appearance of mass society in the late nineteenth century and the remarkable boost to the press at this stage.

Freemasonry was perhaps the organisation that was more damaged by the consequences of the disaster. In this work he devoted a chap- ter to demonstrate the Freemasonic responsibility for the independence of the American colonies: «That this very sad event, one of the greatest shames that have occurred in the contemporary Spain, was a work pre- pared and performed by the lodges, is something that is beyond doubt», he asserted Tirado y Rojas, This assertion served to support the active role of the association in the next colonial episode of For its part, the Catholic journal La Lectura Domini- cal [The Sunday Reading] even created an «anti- Freemasonic Section» in , in which it would blame the institution for the development of the events and their outcome.

The propagandistic resources hardly changed regarding those used for the forging and spreading of the myth, although they were directed towards the demonstration of the Freemasonic character of the republican regime, of its alliance with forces such as Judaism or Communism, and towards the development of an apocalyptic dis- course whose aim was to fill the reader with fear at the threat of a conglomerate of unpatriotic elements, which were referred to as «anti-Spain», and whose purpose was to destroy the nation.

Among the arguments used to support this idea, it was revitalised the one that maintained the interven- tion of Freemasonry in the most fateful events, such as the loss of the colonies. The appearance of booklets and works against Free- masonry during the five years that the Second Spanish Republic lasted was exceptional.

Ultima- tely, the anti-Freemasonic discourse was used as an ideological weapon to discredit the Republic, within the general propaganda developed against it. Despite the limited innovation in the resources used, this propaganda proved to be very effective con- sidering the anti-Freemasonic prejudice, which is still latent. We must bear in mind that the discourse is de- veloped in a period in which the media has a great in- fluence on the Spanish society, since it coincides with the golden age of Spanish journalism, but also with the golden age of propaganda, so used in this interwar pe- riod in order to mobilise a strongly ideologised society, in a global context of political crisis.

The emergence of other media such as radio or cinema did not involve the displacement of the press as hegemonic media of information at this stage. Undoubtedly, all of these factors influenced on the settlement of the anti-Freemasonic prejudice in the Spa- nish mentality, in an atmosphere of political and ideologi- cal edginess to which the press contributed in large part. As time passed, the appeals to the elimination of the op- ponent were patent, with slogans that spared no verbal violence and in which it already seemed that the fatal outcome of the Spanish Civil War could be glimpsed.

Conservative Press and Anti-Freemasonic Propaganda An analysis of the main national Catholic and con- servative newspapers during the Second Spanish Republic shows, as a whole, a number of 1, anti-Freemasonic information, among which it is included editorials, items, columns and news, to which was added the develop- ment of a visual discourse represented in vignettes in which the characteristics and stereotypes were reflected in an image, strictly speaking, of Freemasonry.

The anti-Freemasonic propaganda intensified, as well, during the election periods of and and in the face of events such as the October Revolu- tion of The percentage of opinion articles compared with the informative news is another indicative data. Despite its late appearance in the context of the Second Spanish Republic, proportiona- lly its visual discourse was one of the most intense, with 15 anti-Freemasonic vignettes. The significant predominance of the opinion genre over the informative genre denotes the intention of this press sector of converting Freemasonry into a topical is- sue, with a concrete ideological purpose.

Logically, each newspaper adapted its discourse to its own interests. Aspects such as the Catalan separatism were used to revitalise the argu- ment of the Freemasonic involvement in the colonial independence movements, as a common idea in the dis- course displayed by the Catholic and right-wing press at this stage. In this sense, the discourse seemed to obey the same slogans, since the argument was repetitive in all of the propa- gandistic areas used by conservative groups.

One of the recurring lines in this press sector was the Freemasonic dissolving action of national values, for which it was employed the historical role that the institution had played in the most negative events. The discourse had its roots in the «glorious» Spain of the Catholic Monarchs and in the imperial past, in which all the splendour achieved was gradually destroyed by Freemasonry and its allies. Something that they would never forgive her, since thereafter, according to the arguments held in this propaganda, they became «conspirators against Christian civilisation» and «driving force of Freema- sonry», until they constituted an unpatriotic «coali- tion» made up of «Protestant, Jew and Freemason slanderers who, through the ages, have built up the atmosphere of our historic disrepute» ABC, «Concepto de la hispanidad» [«Concept of Hispanicity»], 30th May 6.

The idea that the seeds of the Spanish decline were sown from that time would be maintained, repeatedly, by other authors such as Ramiro de Maeztu, who re- vived in the monarchist newspaper one of the myths that is part of the Freemasonic legend, as it is the be- longing of the Count of Aranda to the Order and his notable influence on the politics of Charles III. The author played with the historical antithesis by placing an epic Spain opposite to the Spain subjected to the influence of Freemasonry.

This influence would entail a number of events that contributed to the loss of its prestige. This conclusion, in the words of one of the most fervent anti-Freemasonic propa- gandists of ABC, was performed, moreover, in line with a review about another anti-Freemasonic work published during the Republican period, entitled El Enemigo [The Enemy], by Mauricio Karl, pseudonym of Mauricio Carlavilla del Barrio, which indicates that there was a determined support among the conservative press and its contributors to spread the arguments that appeared in various propagandistic media.

El Siglo Futuro [The Future Century], characterised by its anti-liberalism, would insist that it was the intro- duction of this ideology, through the lodges, which provoked the national decline. In this article he drew a parallel between the struggle established between the Spanish people against the French invasion and the struggle that was being fought during the Republican period between tra- ditionalists or «patriots» and revolutionary or «unpatrio- tic».

The people of the Peninsular War are the same, he said, as that which presented the «all-out war against the invaders, defending its territory and its traditions», the one that «continues that fight against those same in- vaders in the old regime and in the present» ESF, 4th May 1. The comparison between the Peninsular War and the Spanish situation during the Second Republic not only referred to a period of exemplary «patriotic» reac- tion in the History of Spain, but it also contained as background the description of a latent situation of war, in the face of the foreign interference represented by Freemasonry, raised in Power.

Much of this ideological opposition was based pre- cisely on the demonstration that it was the irruption of liberalism in Spain what had led to the current situation, since its incursion entailed the national debilitation which would facilitate the penetration and settlement of the triumphant revolutionary forces with the proclama- tion of the Republic. Ruin of nations, and must we witness the last remnants of your religious unity and of your national unity?

Therefore, the references to the role of Freemasonry in the colonial loss would be constant in the propa- ganda during the Republican period. However, Freema- sons did exist. And they acted» ABC, 10th March Influence of the Lodges on Contemporary Poli- tics»]. The ideas of the Enlightenment allowed the impact of liberalism, according to what he argued: «Many of the leaders at the time of the Independence were attracted by Freemasonry» he pointed out.

These words are a copy of those uttered by Franco in his speeches, within his particular anti-Freemasonic phobia Mo- rales-Ruiz, Therefore, the interviewee made the responsibility for the independence of the colonies residing in Freemasonry. The belonging to Freemasonry of the independence leaders lent itself to be one of the most useful resources to support this theory. ABC also claimed this triumph through a journalist report by Pedro Pujol, regular contributor to the newspaper, which focused on the filibuster leader and was entitled «Rizal, before he died, returned to the bosom of the Church».

This information was attested by providing the retraction document written by the Filipino leader just before his execution, in which he abjured his belonging to Freemasonry. Despite this latest act of constriction, Rizal was represented in this journalist report as a «traitor» —a term widely used in the anti-Freemasonic glossary referring to the members of the institution— «who was educated by the Jesuit Fa- thers, just like the so-called Native Americans or mesti- zos who previously thought about separating from Spain», and who would eventually succumb «caught by the wave of Jacobinism that had run throughout Ameri- ca», sheltered in «the support of the Freemason clubs, enemies of the Church» ABC, 23rd August 2.

This constant reference to the past would be a strategy to demonstrate that the establishment of the Second Republic in Spain was due to the work of weakening of the traditional values, which was developed by the Freemasons in order to get the triumph.

Let us look at the laws given to the Spanish by the dreadful Govern- ment of the biennium and we will see that not a single one of them has stopped being inspired by the lodges». For the sake of the country, for our own good […], war on Freema- sonry! The conservative propaganda made to fall on Freemasonry the responsibility for the Catalan and Basque nationalist aspirations, in their attempts to dismember the country. At this stage, the Cata- lan government would hold a confrontation with the central government, which would cause a climate of tension and would reinforce the anti-Freemasonic ac- cusations in the press, based on the involvement in the colonial conflict.

The reaction in the con- servative press was forceful. Let the Anti- Spanish Have It!! There it is again, as it was in the Americas, as it was in in the Philippines» p. Again was the precedent of the Freemasonic action against the homeland, through the boost to the independence aspirations of Catalonia and the Basque Country. The newspaper harshly condemned Basque nationalism and censured its Catholic origin and base.

The discourse, therefore, abounded with an amalgam of elements plotted against Spain. The alerts were on the increase after the events of October , which were used by Companys to proclaim again the Catalan state. El Debate [The Debate] did not hesitate to blame Freema- sonry for being behind the convulsive events. All together to the traitors of Spain! They are the Freemason brothers. The same ones who sold Spain in the West Indies and the Philippines; the ones who in the lodges of those islands hatched rebellion; the ones who with their aprons covered the weapons of the filibuster until the warring outbreak.

The ones who from Spain and from the commands of the Spa- nish colonies weakened the authority, stealthily tied its hands p. Term that would be part of the anti-Freemasonic glossary coined from the begin- nings of the anti-Freemasonic discourse, linked to the unpatriotic facet. In order to win, they do not hesitate to sacrifice either the homeland or the Spanish people living in it.

It is good to know it because the mere knowledge would produce the unanimous re- jection of all the Spanish patriots. They are the ene- mies! The language, increasingly exacerbated, was a re- flection of the latent tension, evident through a group of slogans that, without any doubt, contributed to the exal- tation of spirits, which would culminate in the fatal out- break of the Spanish Civil War.

As time passes the ap- peals to the fight increased, with aggressive terms: «Blood! Many will be terrified by the word —it was read in El Siglo Futuro [The Future Century], on the 18th of December, —; but the sacrifice prevails, and the Spanish heart will not be frightened to save the home- land, which is in danger […] Let us save Spain! Words such as «blood», «war», «kill» would be re- produced in the press, which indicates that, within the general discourse of confrontation with the Republic, the anti-Freemasonic discourse was used apocalyptically in order to create an atmosphere inclined to the action against the situation described in this propaganda.

This reply culminated with this statement that was already a bad omen: «I would put an end to the civil war in Spain. Be sure. Even if it were necessary to die. And to kill» ESF, 27th July The elections of amplified the effects of these slogans, used as electioneering strategy, with messages that spared no verbal violence against the adversary.

The critical period of the campaign coincided precisely with the electoral period, since it began on the 10th of January and would cover up to the 14th of February, ; that is, until two days before the holding of elections. The accusation formulated through the traditionalist journal was based on the breach of the approved pro- posal.

It pointed, with full names, at Freemason ser- vicemen who not only remained in their posts, but who had been promoted to other higher positions under the government of Portela Valladares, who was also identi- fied as Freemason in the right-wing press. The matter was magnified through arguments that supported the danger of the infiltration of an association such as Freemasonry, deemed to be anti-national, in an institution that represented the bastion of patriotism and of national unity and whose function was precisely to de- fend Spain from internal and external enemies.

And as an example, it was remembered again the Freemasonic dreadful intrusion into this sphere, in cases such as that of Riego, responsible for the loss of the American colonies. And it continued: Because Freemasonry is the separatism, is the social revolution, is the interior unhinging and the surrender, unarmed, of the Homeland to international secret powers, which are doing their work in Spain, advan- cing every day on the way previously plotted to get to destroy it.

Once again, alert! The resort to fear was one of the most strengthened elements among the electioneering propaganda strate- gies, through a gloomy language that was intended to sow alarm about the situation. Conclusions One aspect that, from the beginning, has been part of the known as Freemasonic «myth» is the conception of the institution as an unpatriotic association, based on the way it was introduced in Spain through the French invading forces of Thereafter, this vision would lead to foster a discourse that would make to fall on the association the responsibility for the most negative historical events.

Among these events, the loss of the colonies would be emphasised as one of the actions inserted within the plans for the destruction of the Spanish greatness. The idealisation of the imperial past was overcame by a Manichean discourse, full of gloomy and negative connotations, encouraged by the conservative and Catholic groups from the guidelines issued by the Church itself through numerous documents of con- demnation and the promotion of publications aimed at fighting Freemasonry as an institution traditionally con- trary to Catholicism.

This propaganda action was framed within a context marked by the turn-of-the-century crisis, in which the consequences of colonial loss provoked a search for responsibilities of which Freemasonry would receive the greatest burden of blame. The attribution of Free- masonic responsibility for this event remained as ar- gumentative line within the anti-Freemasonic dis- course. This discourse was revitalised during the Second Spanish Republic, as a stage in which the propaganda against the association reached its period of maximum intensity, and it was used by the Catholic and right-wing groups as an instrument of ideological opposition against the political regime.

The anti-Freemasonic discourse was included within the general discourse developed against the Republic, in which the press, as hegemonic element of communi- cation and of formation of public opinion at this stage, played a decisive role in its dissemination. Along with the identification between Republic and Freemasonry as the main argument, the propaganda adapted the discourse to the political context in order to attribute to the influence of the association many of the Republican measures, such as the secularist boost of the regime, its infiltration into key «patriotic» circles such as the Army, the revolutionary boost by means of its con- nection with Marxism or the promotion of Catalan and Basque separatism, within its efforts to destroy Spain, as it already tried historically in the colonial conflict.

The strategies used hardly differed regarding the put into use since the beginnings of this propaganda. The use of inflammatory language contributed to the atmosphere of growing edginess, especially after the October Revolution of Despite the political and social changes experienced in Spain over the last decades, it is surprising the sur- vival of the anti-Freemasonic prejudice, which demon- strates the effectiveness of this propaganda, but also that many of the mental structures of the Spanish society re- main intact in spite of the economic, political and social evolution.

This circumstance is being skilfully exploited by some propagandists, who are still using exactly the same historical arguments, despite the dismantling of most of the anti-Freemasonic arguments. Ediciones Idea, Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Morales Ruiz, Juan J. Revista de Indias, Enrique Maroto y Hermano, Madrid. Planeta, Barcelona. The Pa- cific islands continue to be a distant, unknown and ancient possession, discovered by chance in and lost in , together with the last territories of what was the empire on which the sun never set.

Nowadays they are just the vestige of a forgotten past. The result of joining the history of the islands and the history of the Freemasonic institution was a par- ticular establishment of the lodges. This establishment resulted from the more or less expansionist policies of the different Spanish Orients that supported lodges in those territories. As a consequence of the historical events that followed, Freemasonry was progressively evolving and adapting, sometimes traumatically, until it found itself immersed in a new international order.

Throughout the following pages we will outline the changes occurred in the institution, both in its internal sphere and in its relations with the different circles of action, and which led it to transform and reinvent itself with the sole purpose of remaining faithful to its Spanish origin. We will try to transcend the Spanish tradition and what is Spanish in the Freemasonry of the Philippines during the twentieth century.

In this essay we will not detail the origins and esta- blishment of the Spanish Freemasonry on the Pacific islands. Broad Brushstrokes About Spanish Freemasonry in Philippines What were the changes that occurred within the insti- tution? What was preserved and what changed in the new stage of the Spanish-Philippine Freemasonry with regard to the nineteenth-century Freemasonry: the lan- guage, the organisation…?

Where were their works di- rected at? To answer these questions we will make a brief outline of the establishment of Freemasonry in the space and time in which this work will develop: from the last third of the nineteenth century to the first quarter of the twentieth century. The territories that formed the Spanish Pacific, the Philippines and all the possessions of the Spanish Mi- cronesia, were governed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with its capital in Mexico, until the American independence in From that moment on, com- munications, supplies and resources of any kind were affected, since they happened to depend directly on the distant capital of Spain, which hindered its government.

The vulnerability of a territory that was so scattered and so far from the homeland had as a consequence the increase in troops as well as the creation of the fig- ure of the Governor-General, usually a serviceman, who was supposed to be a resolute person, with lead- ership qualities and ability to organise and repel any kind of external interference or internal revolt.

However, there were few occasions when he could act without the pressure and influence of the candles and the in- cense, that is, of the clergy. Towards the s it was attempted to carry out modernising reforms that were reduced finally to a programme of measures of an economic nature rather than social. These measures favoured that the colony became a profitable territory for the Exchequer and for entrepreneurs who wanted to try or increase their for- tune.

Despite the apparent efforts, the reality was what it was, and both local authorities and the government of the country proved unable to mediate to resolve the growing discontent of the lower Filipino classes, most of which worked in rural labours and domestic service. The result was an order that was deeply hierarchical and divided between Spanish and natives.

Between both groups an emerging elite established itself. It was an elite formed by Filipinos educated in Spanish institutions and cultivated in Europe, who be- gan to have their own ideas. But that aura of prestige towards what was Spanish was turning into resentment whenever the government of the metropolis did not know how to direct the aspi- rations of a Creole elite that had been excluded even from having representation in Parliament. The origins of Spanish Freemasonry in the Philippines are situated in this context.

In relation to the Peninsula it is a late start and of which there is very few details. Places, personages and dates are considered, but there are no 2 The representation in Parliament dated from the early nineteenth cen- tury. A few days later, on the 15th of October, it is reiterated by decree the former Habsburg thesis that the overseas territories in both hemispheres were part of the Spanish Em- pire and their natives enjoyed the same rights as those born in the Penin- sula.

The first representative of the Philippines in the Cortes was Ventura de los Reyes. The Philippines sent several delegates between and but, due to the prevailing chaos, on the 18th of April, , the Cortes stipulated that from that moment Overseas territories would be governed by special laws and could not send representatives to the legislature.

This status was ratified in when the Liberal government of the Marquis of Miraflores created the Ministry of Overseas in imitation of the British model. Reliable information that refers to it does not date back earlier than It suffered from personal thirsts for prominence, several irregularities and anomalies that resulted in a combination of individuals who described themselves as Freemasons but did not act as such.

The administrative and social structure imposed on the islands did not facilitate the relationships either among people or even less among groups. In addition to the important hierarchical structure, most of the lodges had among their ranks a large group of civilian and military employees who were scattered with fre- quent changes of destination, which made it impossi- ble to hold meetings. The islanders, for their part, after the Cavite Mutiny in were the subject of fierce surveillance since their degree of education was re- garded as dangerous and their acts as filibustering.

This chasm that kept the groups separated caused that they had neither the influence nor the power that ultra- conservative historiography has attributed to them. This piece of information is important because in the twentieth century it was one of the arguments used to defend the overseas territories in the face of the confrontation with the American Freemasonry because of questions of territorial jurisdiction. However, besides the fact that it had not managed to settle on Philippine soil, it suffered a more serious problem: that of the initiation of the first native Filipi- nos in the lodges.

Over nearly two decades, between and , the Spanish Freemasonry made several and unsuccessful attempts to settle and consolidate in the Philippines.

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