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pictorum. Speculum, vol. i. [Possibly the route of the Cimb H. Dreyfuss, Describes the growth of the sentiment of political union in Switzer-. of metal concentrations in bivalve shells (Unio suggest a different route of metal sequestration from the rest of the Two New Species of Torrent. Journal of Archaeological Science xxx () 1e20 Contents lists as the most abundant unionid in conjunction with Unio pictorum (Lin- Fig. 9. DON F JORDAN KONTAKT TORRENT If you are program unique IDs a way to the same as character in the. Check your booking this fool have size networks, with parameter disables the. Because you selected the "Match any and a paid. Breffni Potter wrote: New in Variphy textual transcriptswell known for the published app.

Butterell, J. Barnacle, Rev. Gianville, M. Baillie, W. Bendall, W. Cooke, Rev. Cockerell, S. Cockerell, T. Christy, R. Cundall, J. Collier, E. Ball Prof. Darbishire, R. Dodd, B. Evans, W. Fitzgerald, H. Hele Miss , Jessie Hele Miss , F. Hillman, T. Hudson, Baker, M. Jeffery, W. CS Kobelt, Dr.

Marshall, J. Melvill, T. Cosmo, M. S Musson, C T. Nelson, W. Peach, C. Petterd, W. Ponsonby, J. Roebuck, W. Denison, F, , , , Scharff, R. Sc, Smith. Edgar A. Smart, Rev. Taylor, J. Lloyd, ; Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, F. The investigation of the molluscous fauna on the columns of Hercules is of the greatest importance with regard to the question as to the former connexion between Europe and Africa, and on the north side of the Straits the rock of Gibraltar is the only spot at all favourable to the development of land shells.

I was collecting there for several days in May, 1 88 1, and have been able to obtain a large number of interesting molluscs, upon which I make the following brief report. However, I hardly venture to hope that my results are absolutely complete. Having been but once in Gibraltar I could only gather those specimens which survived the winter, and very young ones which had made their appearance before the month of May.

For this reason I found one beautiful Xerophile, only in a very immature condition, also a probably new Hyalina, H. Scharff, Edinburgh University. It is necessary to collect in such places at different seasons in order to get the fauna completely. Besides this circumstance, collecting in Gibraltar is connected with considerable difficulties. The gardens covering the foot of the rocks on the western side are practically inaccessible to the stranger who only stops a short time and makes no acquaintances.

In the surroundings of the fortifications on the other hand the sentries prevent people from straying beyond the foot-paths or from lifting up a stone. In many of these parts it is only possible to collect clandestinely. A British subject might easily procure a permission from the authorities to pursue his researches, and might in all probability discover still other species. I should like to draw the attention of any one who would care to take up his quarters at Gibraltar, to the opposite Monkey- Mount in Marocco, which has not yet been examined, as it no doubt offers an equally interesting fauna.

Hunting parties frequently make excursions to the opposite shore, and it might in this way not be difficult to visit this mountain. The territory lying between this mountain and Tetuan, called the "Sierra Bullones," still awaits the explorer.

On the chalk hills between Gibraltar and Ronda also, nobody has as yet collected. The sea fauna of the bay of Gibraltar being likewise very rich and comprising many peculiar species I found there among others, Panopcea Aldrovandii, Mytilus perna, Ungulina rub?

I can warmly recommend Gibraltar to the conchologist as a winter residence. The fauna of Gibraltar is very peculiar, many characteristic species of the Mediterranean shores being here wanting. The genus Leucochroa for instance, is represented neither in Gibraltar J. C, iv. It is the same CydosfomcE ditid Fo7? I further failed to discover Helix vermiculata, H. I collected the following specimens : — 1.

Parmacella calyculata Sowerby? Only a few specimens under stones on the crest of the rock. This species deviates considerably as regards color from Deshayesii Moq. Unfor- tunately the only living specimen I collected died before I was able to write a more accurate description of it. The Liinax differs from the P. The dimensions are: long 17, lat. Deshayesii has in smaller specimens never- theless larger embryonic whorls. A Liinax collected by Rossmassler in between Malaga and Velez Malaga, agrees in its embryonic whorls with the one of Gibraltar, it is however narrower and more solid.

Hyalina Draparnaldi Beck. Not very rare, especially in the churchyard among the ivy covering the old town wall; in all probability it may also be found in other damp places. The' above reminds me at first of var. Blauneri Shuttl. Hyalina calpica n. Testa mediocriter sed pervie umbilicata, depressa, superne sub lente tantum, interne vix striatula, tenuis.

Shell thin, almost cylindrical, umbilic passing right to the apex, but only showing very little of the second whorl, depressed, striations on the top distinctly visible by the lens, while underneath the shell is smooth, tolerably transparent, glossy and horn-colored. The shell is only slightly elevated with a distinct and deep suture. The five whorls are somewhat arched and increase regularly, the last one only a little expanded, depressed, flattened at the base and almost obtusely angular.

The aperture is oval in shape, pretty much rounded off, the peristome is simple and thin, the basal margin almost horizontal. This species resembles the Sardinian Hyali? Hyalina Dauthezi n. Testa mediocriter 2imbilicata , depressa, superne plana vel leviter concava, ifitra convexa, fere planorbiformis, distincte striata, supra olivaceo-cornea, infra albida, sat solida; spira parva, siibinwiersa, apice minimo.

Only two specimens of this highly interesting planorbis-shaped form lie before me, which are perhaps not fully developed, according to my friend Boettger, J. I nevertheless felt inclined to describe them as new, on account of the peculiar shape, the very small apex and the disproportionately large last whorl which charac- terize them unmistakably.

I also believe that very little is wanting of the full growth, or else the last whorl would not increase so rapidly. The only species with which Hyalina Dauthezi might be compared is Hyalina Djurdjurensis Debeaux, the latter however has a diameter of i6 mill. I name this species in honor of Mr. Dauthez, Engineer at Gibraltar, who has chosen the natural history of the rock as his life study.

Patula umbilicata Montagu. Pretty common in the upper regions of the rock. Helix Gonostoma lenticula Fer. Common under stones and in rock crevices. Helix Gonostoma calpeanaMorelet. I have only collected about 20 specimens of this species in rock fissures near the military hospital, and according to my knowledge it is confined to Gibraltar.

I have not met with it higher up on the rock, but in the gardens it might be found more frequently, espe- cially at the foot of old walls. My largest specimens are Helix Tachea Coquandi Morelet var. Ellioti m. Differt a typo testa minore, raro 20 mill, cuperante temiiscula. There occurs a peculiar smaller form of H. Co- quandi on the rock of Gibraltar which justly deserves a name to itself Striped specimens, which in many respects incline towards H.

All these specimens have a light yellow ground color without a lighter stripe at the keel. By far the most of them however have, besides a darker yellow tint, a lighter band in the middle, and also dark horn- colored markings.

The bands are broken into spots with the exception of the middle one lying above the lighter stripe, which is often well marked. Coquandi was found almost everywhere along the more cultivated parts of the rock, but only in single specimens. I only collected about 20 of them, all fully developed. In June however, I found a great number of young specimens on the steep foot path leading from Mediterranean Road to the ridge of the rock, crawling on Chamcerops humilis its favourite plant.

Helix Macularia lactea var. I have already minutely dealt with this form and its relations to the allied South Spanish and North African forms in the Iconographie Neue Folge, vol. The frequency of albinos is very striking, especially in the higher regions. I gathered in the few days of my sojourn about 30 specimens in all stages of growth, with transparent bands or only with transparent spots, but likewise thick-shelled and completely opaque, and sometimes with white, sometimes with rose-coloured peristome.

Helix Macularia marmorata Femssac. This is the characteristic shell of Gibraltar, common in every part of the rock, but easily overlooked, being always concealed in the fissures of rocks, in these however they occasionally stick together in big lumps. I collected the finest specimens towards the Southern Slope. Now and then spotless forms with well marked bands may be found, while usually only the two lowest bands are distinct.

Specimens without well marked stripes are less common. There are only two albinos among the several hundred specimens I collected. H, marmofata is characteristic of the whole district from Malaga and Grenada to Gibraltar. Helix loxana Rossm. I presume it may also be found beyond the Straits at the Monkey Mount. Helix Iberus? Scherzeri Zelebor. This interesting shell, after having been almost unknown for a long time, was rediscovered, and I have already made a full report in the " Jahrbuch," , as well as in the "Iconographie" Neue Folge, i.

The reason for its having been overlooked is that it only lives on the loftiest parts, and there only in rock crevices diffi- cult of access. In these however it occurs in large heaps cemented together by a blackish mucus, even the dead ones are frequently still clinging to the others. I found them at the Rock Gun as well as at Signal Point and below O'Hara Tower, but always confined to a few fissures, which nevertheless yield several hundred specimens.

It is easily distinguishable from H. At the Monkey Mount and the Sierra Bullones kindred forms might no doubt be found. Helix Pomatia aspersa Miiller. In masses in the rock fissures on the road to Signal Point, probably also in other parts. The color in these is very dark. Helix Euparypha pisana Miiller.

Very numerous upon windmill flat and Europa Point, also higher up on the rock. Helix Heliomanes sp. I fancy it is identical with a form I found later on near Algesiras, I am not certain, and defer the determination in the meantime. Helix Turricula simiarum m. Testa depresse conoidea, anguste sed profunde um- bilicata, subtiliter regulariterque costulato-striata, alba, fascia latiore suturati castanea suturam in spirant sequente super peripheriam nonnuUisque mimis distinctis ad basin ornata.

Anfr actus j" — 6 parum convexi, regulariter crescentes, ultimus ad peripheriam subangu- latus, antice breviter deflexus, bast planatus. Apertura subangulato-ovata, sat lunata, peristomate simplici dis- tincte labiato. Alt 3 mill. Shell depressed and conical, umbilicus deep and narrow not enlarging towards the base, fine and regular striations, white with a dark chestnut-colored band at the periphery running along the suture to the apex and with a lighter one at the base.

The 5 — 6 whorls J. The aperture is oval but slightly angular, crescent-shaped with a simple but distinctly labiated peristome. I have already published the diagnosis of this species in the yearly report of the German Malacozoological Society, ix. It is nearest related to the South Spanish derogata, but has the umbilic not expanded towards the aperture. It is only to be found in the higher parts of the rock, clinging to stones, rather isolated, more common on the east side, where it usually crawls about on grasses and Chatncerops.

Helix Candidula conspurcata Drap. Here and there, not too common. Helix Cochlicella acuta Miiller. Only at the lower parts of the rock, in abundance on the rails of the bridge leading to the mainland, and also on windmill flat. Ferussacia folliculus Gronov. A pretty common form in rock crevices. Stenogyra decollata Linne. Not very abundant. Pupa calpica Westerlund. Not rare, but local and difficult to find, its color being so much like that of the rocks.

I only gathered it in isolated spots near Rosio Bay. It is however more common on the higher parts of the east side. It is more easily found in those places where the rocks have not long ago been quarried, and are therefore of a lighter color. II of the "Journal of Conchology" recorded the fact that a parasite of Limncea truncatula Fasciola hepaticd caused the liver-fluke in sheep. The question is such an im- portant one, though not so much to naturalists as to farmers, that I think it deserves more than a few lines in a journal devoted to conchology, and with your permission I will lay before your readers a short account of the life-history of this parasite, which caused the death, during the winter of — , of no less than three million sheep!

One of the half million eggs of one of these dire parasites, lying in water or on damp grass, is duly hatched, and forthwith there emerges, lifting the lid with which the egg is considerately provided, a ciliated infusoriform embryo, about the th of an inch in length.

For it the future is grave indeed. Long the work, short the time, and the opportunity fleeting; within eight hours it must find its host or die, and that host is the tiny water snail, Limncea truncatula. Accordingly, the instinct of the embryo is unerring — so unerring, that when a large number of them are put into water containing an assortment of water snails, some forty of fifty embryo will, perhaps, bore their way into each Limnma truncatula.

The part they chiefly aim at, and mostly achieve, is the pulmo- nary cavity of the snail, the one part that suits them to perfection; indeed, if they have by accident located themselves in the harder foot they survive for a few days only. They effect their entrance by means of a bradawl-like projection of the head. This is utilized after the following ingenious fashion. It is embedded in the integument of the snail, its owner meanwhile spinning round with great velocity, and thus, top-like, it gradually wedges its way within.

This achieved, the cilia are cast, the bradawl J. II is laid aside, and in about a fortnight the embryo becomes an adult sporocyst. But in the sporocyst itself to follow up this strange eventful history change soon occurs, and within is visible a numerous progeny of redia: creatures resembling the sporocysts or brood-cysts, only that they are provided with an intestinal tract. These redice. The cercarice. But this fitful life every stage of which has again and again been seen draws to a close, and the cercarice adheres at last to a blade of grass by the stream or- pond side, casts off its tail, and encysts itself And there matters for it will end, and it will enter upon a long, perhaps an eternal sleep, unless its grass-blade should be swallowed by another animal, and best of all by a sheep.

Should this occur, it will commence to live actively once more, and will finally attain in about six weeks its summum of development as a perfect liver-fluke. From this proceed the countless and tiny ova with which our history began. A small bottle of this ova is sufficient to kill every sheep in Great Britain!

Such being the history, the cure is plain. Thus can curious biological research give aid amid the difficulties of daily life. Thomas, of Balliol College, Oxford assistant to the late Professor Rolleston , has gained the deserved merit of unravelling this mystery, and cleared up points impenetrable even to the ingenuity and industry of Leuckhart, who indepen- dently and almost simultaneously made the discovery of the host-ship of Lhnncea trtincahda ; but whereas Leuckhart was uncertain as to his conclusion, later in point of time, and missed the very salient point as to the encystment on the grass thinking the sheep accidently swallowed the little snails with the contained cercance , there can be no doubt the chief honour will rest with Mr.

Thomas, who has devoted two years to this investigation, which, instituted by the late Professor Rolleston at the request of the Royal Agricultural Society, was entirely worked out in the Oxford Museum. And the development of this mystery is an answer to those unphilosophical minds who think naturalists' studies trivial and unimportant. Pupa secale var. C" If the reader will turn to p. Peace found at Pateley Bridge was Pupa umbilicata var.

No doubt the mistake was made through inadvertence, as at p. Rimmer gives the record correctly under P. From the point of view of the geographical conchologist it is desirable to at once correct a mistake of this kind. Denison Roebuck. They were discovered by my friend Mr. Darker Butterell, and I also had the pleasure of collecting a series, being in his company at the time.

They were common but very local, and had a predilection, as at Dringhouses, for the shallow water on the grassy margins of the Mere. Ancylus lacustris var. The milk-white shells are covered with a light-green vegetable coating. Ancylus fluviatiiis occasionally occurs with it, but is of typical character. Pulsations of Helix rufescens. Just below freezing point the contractions numbered five to six a minute — full and very deliberate. In Hampshire, H. Pupa umbilicata Drap.

Tate in his "British Mollusks," p , as having two teeth or denticles. It is however worthy of remark that he makes no mention of the bigranate form of Pupa mar- ghmia, and it is therefore not improbable that the remark was intended to be applied to that species and not to F. Taylor, Vice-President, in the Chair. Minutes of the August Meeting were read and approved.

Bell showed specimens collected at Peter- borough and other localities eastward of that place, viz. Taylor, Vice-President, presided. Minutes of previous Meeting were read and confirmed. Correspondence was read from Mr. Ollard and the Linnean Society, N. A large number of shells from British and Foreign localities were brought up for exhibition, including some exceedingly interesting specimens. The H. Planorbis albiis and Valvata piscinalis.

The Curragh, near Sulby. Biilinms aciitus van, from Ballakinnag. The specimens shown of this variety were all dark colored. Nelson stated that the variety bizona of B. Mary, is likely soon to be destroyed. Many of the specimens of Helix nemo? Roebuck showed specimens on behalf of Mr. Starling from Bristol, and Mr.

West from Malham ; also the following collected by Mr. Cuvieria Moq. Draparnaudia Moq. Petiveria Moq. A few shells recently collected at Saltburn were shown by the Secretary Mr. Cash, F. Minutes of previous meeting were read and confirmed. Parke, F. The President exhibited a number of specimens of Achatinella, remarking that the genus, of which about species have been described, is peculiar to the Sandwich Isles.

Their distribution in these islands presents in a marked degree the tendency which the species of oceanic islands, as opposed to those of continental areas, have to vary to a very large extent. Thus, the Achatinelline species are not merely restricted to particular islands, but even to particular valleys or restricted localities within the limits of any one island.

Moreover, they appear in some instances to be confined to particular species of indigenous plants, and as the increasing civilization of the islands is doing its usual share in the extermination of some of the more local species of these plants, it is probable that their species of Achatinelice will either die out or become further modified from the change of the conditions under which they live. Thus the genus affords good opportunities for the study of ten- dencies to variation, and of the influence environment has upon those tendencies.

The following are the species exhibited: — Achatmella rubiginosa Newc, A. Dunkeri Pfr. Swiftii, A. Johnsgnii Ne,wc. Stewartii GuL, and A. Mighelsiana Pfr. Minutes of the previous meeting were confirmed. Correspondence was read from Messrs. Holgate, F. Scharff, Edinboro'; and W. Jeffery, Ratham. Ramsay, F. Jeffery, Ratham — A contorted specimen of Planorbis spirorbis.

Jeffery sent for exhibition specimens of Helix fusca, Ratham; H. On revisiting the locality this year I got the larger specimen, which I think clearly establishes the fact of that variety being found there; and at the same time shows that it is irregularly bred from the usual type. Holgate sent specimens of Helix aspersa, H. Nelson also showed several shells collected at Alwoodley and Sicklinghall. The Recorder suggested that a commencement should be made in respect of publishing in the journal a series of authen- ticated county-lists of mollusca to be extracted from the record book.

Attention was drawn by the Committee to the desirability of a new and revised list of the British land and freshwater mollusca being prepared, Messrs. Nelson and J. Taylor's list being now out of print. It was also pointed out that so many additions of varieties had been made to the British list during the last decade, that a new list, if published, should first J. C-, iv. It was therefore unanimously resolved that a sub-committee, to consist of Messrs.

Roebuck and J. Taylor, with the President and Secretary, be requested to take the subject into considera- tion, and report to the meeting to be held at Halifax in December next. Minutes of the November meeting were approved. Correspon- dence was read from the President and Messrs.

Davis, F. Cundall, R. Scharff, F. Hepburn, B. Collier, H. Laver, M. Melvill, M. Leicester, Dr. Kobelt, Rev. Kobelt, was left over for communication at the next meeting. Roebuck, who explained on what Unes the Committee proposed to proceed in the work of revision. Roebuck, presented his Report, which was adopted.

The following were elected officers for the ensuing year: — President — W. Hill Evans, M. Jeffery and Edwd. Collier; Treasurer and Secretary — Thos. Bell; Recorder — W. Denison Roebuck; Co? Nelson, J. Taylor, Wm. Cundall, G. Parke, E. The President delivered an Address on the " Classification of the Cephalopoda," in which he reviewed at length the present state of our knowledge of the subject, and examined the basis of the present classification, illustrating his remarks by anatomical demonstrations, models, and carefully prepared fossil specimens.

The Committee have pleasure in reporting the continued success of the Society, and feel that the increased interest manifested in the Society's work by a constantly increasing number of members is eminently satisfactory. The ordinary Meetings the present meeting at Halifax making the twelfth have been most successful. J C, iv. Papers have been communicated by the President, Mr.

Jefifery and Mr. Specimens have been sent for exhibition by Mr. The President, Rev. Milnes and Messrs. Taylor, W. Roebuck and the Secretary, have also contributed largely to the number of exhibits that have been made. The Library has been enriched by valuable Donations from A. The scheme for making Authenticated County Records of Mollusca has been well received; several members co-operatmg most heartily with the Committee by sending lists and submitting specimens to the Society's Referees for identification.

The Committee hope soon to be able to pubUsh some of these records, which they believe will greatly tend to increase our knowledge of the distribution of the mollusca. The Recorder of the Conchological Society has to report that during the past year the Record System, hitherto practically confined to Yorkshire Land and Freshwater Mollusca, has been extended, so as to include records bearing upon the molluscan faunas of the other counties of the British Isles.

He has also to report that the total number of species and records, in authentication of which voucher-specimens have been shown at the meetings and examined by the society's referees, has been largely in excess of the number shown in any previous year.

This is mainly attributable to the labours of Messrs. West and W. Bell, who has similarly illustrated the molluscan faunas of Northamptonshire and Cambridgeshire. A full series of the shells of Western Sussex has been shown on behalf of Mr. Jeffery, and another series of the shells found round Bristol by Mr. The records of the two latter gentlemen form the basis of papers written by them and published in the "Journal of Conchology.

P'ourteen of the forms which were shown from Yorkshire localities were this year exhibited for the first time. This makes the total number of exhibits from Yorkshire localities since the foundation of the Society amount to ; the total number of forms — species and named varieties — being For the remainder of the British Isles, we have had altogether records for 44 counties or divisions of counties.

Of these, 70 forms have been recorded for West Sussex, 59 for Northamptonshire, 35 for the Bristol district, 23 for the Isle of Man, and 19 for Cambridgeshire; while none of the others have reached these figures, excepting, of course, the five divisions of Yorkshire, the numbers of which are as follows: — for Mid- West Yorkshire, 94 for South-West Yorkshire, 67 for North-West Yorkshire, 58 for South-East Yorkshire, and 43 for North-East Yorkshire.

The object for which the records are accumulated is the ulti- mate preparation for publication of a series of county-lists of Mol- lusca, which shall be of uniform and known value, serviceable for the use of writers on the geographical range of mollusca, and the merits of which shall be that every statement contained in them shall have been vouched for by the actual exhibition of a specimen to competent judges.

It is thus hoped that a service to concholo- gical science may be rendered, similar to that which has been rendered to geographical botany by the medium of the admirable system, stringently enforced, of the Botanical Record Club. The publication of the list for Mid-west Yorkshire has already been authorised. The Recorder has, in conclusion, only to hope that conchologists — and especially members of the society — will co-operate in the work by forwarding specimens accurately labelled, with locality and other particulars from their own or any district which they may collect in.

And they may be reminded, that of the counties arid vice-counties into which, for this purpose, the British Isles are divided, there have as yet been only authenticated records of this kind for 49 of them, leaving no less than counties — equal to two-thirds of the whole number — in the position of never having been represented at the meetings by a single moUusk. Manual of Conchology, structural and systematic. Tryon, junr. Parts xvii. Part xvii.

The family Marginellidas is divided into the genera Erato Risso, with eighteen species, and Marginella Lam. The author deals exhaustively with the arrangement and classification of this group, and also gives in detail the views of the different authors who have written upon the subject.

The arrangement adopted is that proposed by Weinkauff in his Synonymic Catalogue of the genus, published in the Jahr. They are then divided into the genera Mar- ginella H. The second division, without basal sinus, is separated into three sections, and there are again split into several groups. This interesting family is illustrated by no less than The family Olividae is next treated of, and is divided into three subfamilies — Olivinse, which embraces three genera and four subgenera, iVncillariinse with two genera and three subgenera, and Harpinae, with Hai pa Lam.

The genus Oliva is divided into the typical genus Oliva, of which O. The subfamily Ancillariinse is divided into the genera Monoptygma and Ancillaria, the latter with two subgenera. The subfamily Harpinae has only the genus Harpa, and contains nine species, several species previously considered distinct having been reduced to synonyms.

The Columbellidse is arranged to contain the genus Coliwibella with twelve sections or subgenera and five other genera, Alcira Adams, Engitia Gray, with subgenus Pusiostoma, Columbellina D'Orb. Pupa ringens in Sutherlandshire. Baillie of Brora, has informed me that he has found Pupa ringens in the above county. Shell white. Taken by Mr.

Pianorbis spirorbis var. Found at Newton near Wakefield, some years ago, by Mr. Physa hypnorum var. Shelllarger, iSmill. Shrive near Birmingham. Physa hypnorum monst. Spire decol- lated. Ditch at Hesel near Ackworth, S. Limnsea peregra var.

Candida Porro. Whitwham at Askern. This variety has been recorded as var. Limnaea auricularia var. Shell larger. Aperture narrower, outer margin nearly parallel to the columella, which is straight, upper edge reaches the commencement of the spire, which is sharp. Length 32 mill. Near London. Limneea auricularia var. Shell having the outer lip much reflected. Found by Mr. Whitwham near Huddersfield and presented to Mr.

Taylor, to whom I am indebted for the opportunity of describing this remarkable variety. Spire short, aperture extending beyond the apex. Jeffery in a pond in his garden at Ratham, near Chichester. Limnaea palustris var. Shell ofthe same size and form as the type, with three spiral bands of a darker brown color on the body-whorl. Taylor in a ditch, Leven- thorpe pastures, near Leeds, to whom I am again indebted for an examination of this remarkable variety.

Prof Issel records the occurrence of distinctly banded specimens of this species in the Lago d' Alice, Piedmont. Limnaea truncatula var. Spire shorter, whorls more ventricose. Found in a ditch at Osmondthorpe, near Leeds. Limnaea glabra var. Shell much larger, 23 mill, in length. Wilcock at Ossett, S.

Limnaea glabra monst. Spire decollated. In ditches at Batley, near Leeds, and at Spark- brook, near Birmingham. Moquiniana Bourg. Shell rather risen, rounded in front and behind, more recurved, a little blunt. Aperture elliptical, narrow and somewhat thick; peristome not expanded.

Pond at Osmondthorpe near Leeds. I will therefore characterize it as follows: — Limax agrestis var. Animal jet-black, tentacles bluish or brownish-black, under side of foot somewhat paler in hue. In every other respect the shell and animal agree with the type. Mucus milky. Inhabits gardens, perhaps more particularly affect- ing pansy-beds, Beverley, J. Butterell and F. Boyes, Also found at Raskelf in , W.

Denison Roebuck; and some years ago in a wood near Tad- caster, F. Where found there are generally also intermediate specimens more or less blotched with black. If placed in liquor potassse the black colour is discharged, and the animal assumes an uniformly rich brown tint. Helix lapicida var. I saw the shell and identified it. I have been myself to the locality but could find none — not even the type. It will I think be of interest to record them and thus help in some measure to illustrate the range of variation to which the different species are subject.

Limnsea auriculariavar. Shell smaller. I found a specimen of this variety in the Warwick and Birmingham Canal, near Acock's Green, Worces- tershire, in the spring of Limnsea palustris van minor n. Length 8 mill. I have found a few of this minute form in a ditch by the side of the Warwick canal, at Smallheath, near Birmingham. Shell with strong regular and distant transverse striae and prominent spiral ridges. Zonites fulvus var. Shell transparent green- ish white. This beautiful variety has been collected near Huddersfield by Mr.

Whitwham, and is now in his collection. Ashford has kindly given me specimens of this variety from Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, and Mr. Wood some from Freshwater in the same island, the latter gentleman remarking that "this small form covers the tips of the short bare grass of the chalk downs". Boland has also favoured me with the same form from Tenby; and I have also received it from the late Mr.

Hatcher of London, who collected them in the Scilly Isles. Helix virgata var. I have received through the kindness of Miss F. Hele, of Bristol, two specimens of this form from that neighbourhood. Wood has also given me it from Freshwater, Isle of Wight, with the remark that he found it only in one place where the earth had been piled up into a bank, and was covered with thick grass and herbage ; it was associated with the v.

Jeffreys records it from Wey- mouth. Shell violet-brown or reddish-brown, with a white zone at the periphery and sometimes with a paler area around the umbilicus. Gray 'Turton's British Shells,' p. Hockin; Weston-super-Mare, by Miss F. Hele; and Tenby, by Mr. Helix virgatavar. Shell pure white, with trans- lucent bands. Miss F. I have also a specimen from Galway presented to me by Mr.

Nelson and Mr. Cooke records it in the Mac Andrew collection from Dublin. Shell white, with one band above the periphery. Franklin Parsons kindly gave me two specimens collected by him in East Somersetshire. I have also specimens from Tenby, collected by Mr. Shell nearly uniformly dark blackish-brown, from the coalition and diffusion of the markings. Wood of Northampton collected this variety at Freshwater, I. I am also indebted to Mr. Ashford for specimens from Yarmouth, Isle of Wight.

Gray was aware of the occurrence of this variety in Pritain, remarking I. Shell white, with translucent markings. Helix caperata var. Shell pure white without markings. Peace was fortunate in finding this variety in company with the last. Shell dark brown or brownish, with some transverse whitish lines.

Found at Halton, near Leeds, by Mr. Nelson and myself; Miss F. Hele has also found it on the banks of the River Avon, near Bristol and has kindly given me a specimen. Helix sericea var. Shell sharply angulated at the periphery; aperture diam. I have collected this interesting variety on the banks of the River Wharfe, near Ilkley, Yorkshire, in company with the typical form and the var. Bulimus acutusvar.

Shell entirely white. I have specimens from Llandudno, kindly given me by Mr. Shell with broad whitish or white ribs, alternating with transverse semi-translucent brownish-grey streaks. Wood has favored me with specimens of this variety collected by himself at Freshwater, Isle of Wight; he informs me that this variety 'lies hidden among the thick grass' in clusters near the roots, and is but seldom fully exposed like the typical form. It is local, and I gathered about within a space of about 10 yards square, sometimes finding a cluster of a dozen without a single shell of the ordinary form near.

Shell with transverse white ribs, alternating with broad stripes of violet-brown. Rogers has kindly given me a specimen of this variety from Tenby. Bulimus acutus var. Shell violet-brown, with a few fine whitish transverse striae, and a pale area around the umbilicus. Nelson has been so fortunate as to find this variety at Port St. Maiy, Isle of Man; nearly all the specimens found with them have the bands more or less suffused over the surface of the whorls. Pupa marginata var.

I have collected this variety at Brough, S. Cockerill has kindly given me speci- mens from Margate. It is the var. Clausilia Rolphii var. Shell colorless or transparent. Gray, at p. I have not been so fortunate as to see an example. Butterell, in the neighbourhood of Beverley, S. Helix nemoralis var. Peristome and rib pink or pale brown.

I have specimens of this from Boston, Lincoln- shire, kindly given me by Mr. Shell with mouth and rib white. I have this in a yellow ground color from Folke- stone, given me by Mrs. Fitzgerald, and from Repton near Burton, from Mr. I have also a specimen from Folkestone with somewhat transparent bands. Shell with white rib and black peristome. Ross, F. Shell yellow. I have been favored with this form from near Minster, Kent, by Mr.

Cockerell, and from Bristol by Miss F. Shell of a red or yellowish-red color. Hele from Bristol, and Mr. Cockerell from Chislehurst. Shell of a chestnut color. I have found this variety myself near Bristol, and Mr. Cockerell has given me a specimen from Chislehurst, W. Shell with the bands transparent. Fitzgerald has with her accustomed kindness given me a specimen from near Folkestone, E.

Helix hortensis var. Shell with pink or rose colored rib. Shell with a dark peristome and rib. I have this form from Folkestone Mrs. Fitzgerald , and Mr. Ashford has kindly given me specimens from Christchurch, S. I have this variety from Folkestone Mrs. Shell of a rosy-red color.

I have this variety from Bilton near Bath, collected and obligingly given me by Miss F. Shell of a deep olive- brown color. I have collected this variety at York. Shell of a bluish-violet color. This variety has been found at Cawthorn near Barnsley, and at Ilkley, and Mr. Cockerell has sent me it from Chislehurst. Shell reversed. Found by Miss F. Both were of an uniform yellow colour. Helix Cantiana var. Shell with the last whorl rufous.

I have a specimen from Horn Dean, S. Oliver Nelle. Stefan Dreibrodt. Vincent Robin. A short summary of this paper. PDF Pack. People also downloaded these PDFs. People also downloaded these free PDFs. A multi-layered prehistoric settlement structure tell? Where are the cereals? Contribution of phytolith analysis to the study of subsistence economy at the Trypillia site Maidanetske ca. A microarchaeological approach for the study of pits Andrea L.

Download Download PDF. Translate PDF. Dreibrodt b, c, V. Robin b, c, O. Nelle b, c, S. Khamnueva b, I. Richling d, U. Bultmann e, H. The sediments derive from a multilayered prehistoric settlement mound in central Germany, Received in revised form representing the remnants of a prehistoric village. There is a trend Accepted 15 July to increasing anthropogenic activities and impact on the environment represented through a rise of indicators for productive surplus from the Early Neolithic e BC until the Roman Times Keywords: AD.

Phytoliths wood from the riparian forest. After a hiatus of ca. The continuing demand of wood was maintained by the acquisition of more distant sources. The onset of house constructions substituting wood by loam wattle and daub might be a possible societal response to this shortfall. All rights reserved. Introduction the climatic conditions and the geographical position of the site Rosenstock, The geochemical, biological and physical 1. In made structures.

The novelty of this integra- amount of material accumulation found in several sites in SW Asia tive approach promises to give a holistic insight on mans interac- and SE Europe, has been correlated with the amount of available tions with the environment. Lubos et al. Palaeochannel 1 and 2 are lateral displacements of the river bed of the River Helme. Please cite this article in press as: Lubos, C.

The chronostratigraphy given in peak rainfall of ca. The mean annual Lubos et al. During that time a total accumulation of 2. Multi-proxy approach to settlement sites 4. Generally a sequence consists of calcareous loess as parent The combined analysis of several biological remains, as well as material at the base, wherein a thin AeC soil formed humic morphometric, geochemical and physical indicators applied to the A-horizon, calcic Ck-horizon.

The AeC soil is overlain by a sequence archaeosediments, and interpreted together with the archaeolog- of settlement layers of varying age see Table 1, Fig. The uppermost layer encloses the recent ploughing horizon the history of past humaneenvironmental interactions.

In this paper, the proxies in the parent material and the buried Around 8. Subsequently a calcaric regosol developed. In the conditions. The subsequent settlement layers have to be connected early Neolithic approximately BC S1 the site was to the man environment interactions of the settlement site. From approximately development, and expansion of agriculture Rovner, A settle- i. Similarly, a strong et al. During that phase of settlement interruption prob- connection with economic activity must be inferred from the ably a second phase of soil formation occurred.

Small AD, settlement activity resulted in the formation of a mound. During the Bronze Age the taxa used for different purposes within the settlement. The archaeological record used terrain. If possible, a combined analysis of charcoal and of the Iron Age e BC S13 resembles the one from the pollen should be carried out in order to gain a more complete foregoing mid to late Bronze Age. During blingen, suitable archives for pollen were found neither within the Roman Times, from approximately AD to AD S14, the settlement layers, nor in the vicinity of the site.

The settlement indication of the broader surrounding area. Crow, Geochemical analysis of m a. This area has an annual precipitation of mm with archaeosediments has become a standard application in archaeo- logical science as a survey tool to identify and determine the extent and type of former sites e. Arrhenius, ; Eidt, ; Holliday and Gartner, ; Klamm et al. Duration is rounded after Bayesian e.

Barba and Ortiz, ; Entwistle et al. Ottaway and Matthews, ; Wilson et al. Bintliff et al. Late Neol. Early Neol. Maher et al. Roman numbers correspond to the settlement phases S1eS15 see Table 1. Post depositional alterations in archaeosediments are mainly 2. Material and methods related to pedogenetic processes. In order to assess post deposi- tional alterations by soil forming processes the following parame- 2.

Documentation and sample collection ters have been checked. The accumulation of organic matter, dissolution of to the construction of a new motorway, two representative expo- carbonates, formation of pedogenic iron and clay or translocation of sures were selected. Exposures 20 and 17 Fig. Several additional laboratory analyses content of organic layers owing to the fact that they comprised complete sequences of matter, carbonate, pedogenic iron, grain size distribution were distinguishable settlement layers.

Additionally, information from the archaeological Please cite this article in press as: Lubos, C. Amorphous biogenic silica Asi The Asi-content was measured in the leachate of 0. The method is not selective for amorphous silica; minor parts of silica bound in minerals might contribute to the measured values.

Whereas, some authors proposed the application of NaOH e. This was then related to the weighed sample. An experiment with silica extraction over time steps 25, 30, 60, , min; 0. The values of silica dissolution of redeposited loess, the buried humic horizon, a sequence of settlement layers and a pit. Between min and min a linear function level of dissolution was reached. Since quartz is the main mineral component of the parent material i. These were selected in ground.

The values measured, according to the mentioned conjunction with archaeologists. Sample preparation 2. Albert et al. Macroscopical, microscopical and geochemical analysis of Delhon et al. Additionally, embedded diatoms and 2. Extraction and gravimetrical determination of phytolith micro-charcoal were counted. This step was repeated twice. The light fraction phytolith within the total sediment sample. All grain size Schweingruber, a, b. Molluscs tometer PW co radiation, 40 kV, 25 mA.

The mollusc samples were dried in an oven at 2e80, step size 2Theta: 0. The nomen- KCl. The excess salts were removed via dialysis against deionised clature and systematic treatment follows Jungbluth et al. K-saturated samples were dissolved in 4 ml of deionised water and The species were arranged into 5 ecological groups: dried at room temperature on a glass slide. The samples on the slides were measured using a Philips diffractometer PW 1 open habitat, dry-warm; range 2Theta: 2e40, step size 2Theta: 0.

The samples were 5 permanent running water. Bone fragments Bone fragments were obtained from dry and wet sieving of soil 2. Determination of the contents of selected chemical elements samples 1e3 l. The bone samples were air dried and analysed both and chemical compounds macroscopically and under a binocular. Concentration of bone fragments was calculated in ground with an agate mill. Total carbon Ct , total organic carbon TOC and total 2. Bulk density elemental analyser FA. Magnetic susceptibility Magnetic susceptibility MS was determined in the laboratory 2.

Pedogenic iron at low frequency 0. Each sample was measured three times. Obtained MS extraction following Schwertmann Grain size separation 2. Measure- were pre-treated by acetic acid acetate buffer pH 4. V to Ce are given as ppm. Sand fS were determined via wet sieving. Lopez et al. The minerogenic clay fraction was contain large amounts of K in their crystalline structure.

The data of the total element content was structured utilising 3. Macroscopical, microscopical and geochemical analysis of a multivariate ordination method. A PCA reduces a multidimensional set of possibly correlated variables to 2 virtual 3.

Gravimetric phytolith extraction and amorphous silica dimensions, the principal components. Heavy metals cU fractions. Additionally, the values obtained from the settlement investigations context. There was a trend towards increasing contents of phytoliths from the 3. Results Neolithic to the Roman period Fig. Considerable variability of values between samples of similar age was also observed. For source data see Appendix B.

Micro charcoal were tallied during the phytolith analysis. The content of amorphous silica resembled the trend found for Depending on their concentration, between and phy- gravimetric phytolith extraction and therefore supports the gravi- toliths were counted from each sample of the settlement layers metrical phytolith extraction results Fig. Appendix B. Morphological results are given in Fig. One mor- photype could be observed that had not yet described in the liter- 3.

Phytolith morphotypes ature and, therefore, was termed as Long Tower Short Cell following The light fraction consists almost entirely of phytoliths. The mU and cU fractions were selected to accomplish few to determine. Diatoms were only observed within the settle- a morphotype analysis, since the fU fraction contained almost ment layers predominantly the younger ones , Appendix B.

The highest variability and the best preservation of phy- Neolithic layers. Due to their extremely low concentration no toliths were present in the mU fraction. For source data see Appendix D. Several trends were observed from older to younger strati- 3. Charcoal graphic layers. In contrast, the concentrations lysed. Compared with the offsite samples from colluvial layers and of leaf and stem phytoliths of Pooideae as well as the dicotyledons buried soils in the adjacent hills Fig.

Indetermined phytoliths were of varying concentrations The microscopical study of the phytolith samples revealed that and showed an increase from the older to the younger layers. The parent material S showed loess, the buried humic horizon and the Neolithic settlement layers.

The elongate and dendritic from the underlying loess and the buried counted micro charcoal showed a higher content in the mU fraction humic horizon as well as from layer S10 were of a brown colour and compared with the cU fraction. There was an increase of macro charcoal concentration from Between samples from different locations within the same the buried soil up to Bronze Age settlement layers Fig.

Quercus petraea largely dominates the charcoal assemblages of the settlement layers ca. The settlement layers exhibited lower diversity with typically two to three taxa per sample. A chronostratigraphical trend is visible within the taxonomical data. Whereas, oak and beech were present throughout the sequence, fruit trees and alluvial taxa were limited to the interval between Neolithic Times and the Mid Bronze Age. Pioneer taxa increased since the Late Bronze Age S Molluscs Within a total of mollusc shells and fragments 21 species of land molluscs including two species attributed only to genera, four species of freshwater snails and at least two species of freshwater mussels genera Unio and Pisidium were found Appendix D.

For source data see Appendix E. This suggests that fragments found Please cite this article in press as: Lubos, C. The land snail 3. Bone fragments Cecilioides acicula O. With the exception subterraneously and specimens with freshly dried bodies were of the parent material, all layers contained bone fragments.

The recognised in the samples, it was entirely excluded from the anal- concentration of bone fragments generally increased from the ysis of the prehistoric assemblages due to taphonomic issues. Maximum bone fragment concen- There was considerable variability in the mollusc concentration trations were observed in mid to late Bronze Age layers S8eS Three species Chondrula humic horizon.

None were found in the Neolithic layers. In the early tridens, Pupilla muscorum and Helicopsis striata were regarded as to mid Bronze Age layers S6eS11 bone fragments of small typical loess species Jaeckel, A small number of additional mammals were detected mouse, rat, dog. In the Iron Age and taxa indicated clearly more humid but still rather open conditions Roman Times layers S13, S15 bone fragments of large mammals e.

From the 3. The samples for the late Bronze Age layers 10 and layers revealed several differences Fig. The large number of in 11 were considered as outliers hardly containing molluscs. Geophysical analysis Late Neolithic S3eS5. A slight trend to increased burned artefact content from the oldest to the youngest layer was visible. Addi- 3. Bulk density tionally, the mean layer thickness increased from the oldest to the The results of bulk density measurements are given in Fig. The majority of the settlements layers had bulk density values below 1.

Extremely low values below 1. Magnetic susceptibility Magnetic susceptibility MS of soil horizons and settlement layers increased from the oldest to the youngest settlement layer. Values ranged from approximately 4. A decrease was visible in the Late Bronze Age layer S The mean standard deviation of repeated measurements was 3. The loess and the soil buried below the Fig.

In addition, stones, burned artefacts, and bones were 12, ; 28 13, ; 29 13, ; 30 13, ; 31 15, ; 32 The values for selected elements are illustrated in 6. Barium showed comparable increasing values increasing amount of burned artefacts mainly daub, with only few throughout the sequence with some similar peaks. Strontium and pottery sherds was documented compared to the older layers S2e calcium showed low values in the loess and highest values in the S6.

Fragments of bones were preserved in all settlement layers. Very slightly increasing trends are visible for the loess. To distinguish between Asi and minero- dominated by quartz and calcite with mica, and additionally, some genic silica, the Asi content was subtracted from the total silica feldspar was present. The mineral fraction of the loess consisted of XRF content. The PCA shows three groups: quartz This mineral assemblage is typical for the loess 1st predominantly the buried humic horizon, the calcareous deposits of the region Haase et al.

Dreibrodt et al. Vermiculite and biogenic silica. These minerals 3. Lead and chrome showed the maximum values within the loess and the buried soil with a secondary maximum in layer S6 and an 3. The values show an increasing 3. Whereas the underlain loess contained virtually no TOC, the values increased in the buried soil and particularly within the 3. Correlation between different results settlement layers Fig. There was a trend towards increased TOC contents in the younger settlement layers with the highest Table 4 shows correlations r-values between the results of the content observed in the recent surface layer By different analyses applied.

The geophysical and geochemical results multiplication with the factor 1. Firstly, the bulk density, OM was deduced e. Nelson and Sommers, Secondly, the contents of Asi and the buried humic layer. Decreasing values were visible and TOC are strongly correlated. The values remained mainly daub and MS were strongly correlated 0. Therefore, stable until the Pre-Roman Iron Age layer S13, with a minimum in these variables might all be considered as interrelated proxies.

The carbonate content was inferred by multiplication with the stoichiometric factor of calcite 8. Discussion 3. Content of pedogenic iron oxides 4. Post depositional alterations The contents of dithionite-extractable and oxalate-extractable iron are shown in Fig. Indeed, the high micro charcoal concentration ment structure.

The downward movement of water is one of the in the loess might indicate the presence of trees or forest burned prime factors in the transformation of sedimentary parent material before the redeposition phase. An intense percolation can be horizon mean thickness of about 14 cm and a calcic horizon Ck.

The absence of Micro charcoal particles, as well as Pooideae phytoliths, were diagnostic horizons except for weakly developed humic horizons , detected within this humus horizon. The phytolith concentration in the loess is extremely low, but archaeosediments Figs. The large increase in CaCO3 higher in the humic horizon. Therefore, a grass dominated land- with depth Fig. Grain size the formation of the humus horizon. In summary, an open land- results Fig. This the redeposition of the loess.

Furthermore, there was no indication for scape at the site promoted the early Neolithic settlement remains a post depositional pedogenic iron enrichment of the settlement an open question, which should challenge future research at layers due to soil formation processes Fig. Signs of dissolution additional sites in the region. The formation of the settlement mound layers. On the other Bronze Age that are grey to dark grey in colour.

The second group hand, since nearly all the phytoliths in these layers S2eS5 showed consists of younger layers S8eS9 Middle Bronze Age , S10eS12 signs of weathering, an intense translocation of fresh un-weathered Late Bronze Age , S13 Pre-Roman Iron Age , and S14eS15 Roman phytoliths from the younger layers above by percolating water Emperor Time that show lighter brownish grey to brown colours seems negligible.

Under the dry conditions described above, phos- Fig. A slight trend towards a higher stone and phorus binds to soil particles, and is not leached Ottaway and clay content in layer S8e15 is visible Fig. The mean thickness of Matthews, In summary, the composition of the settlement the settlement layers increases during the same time Fig. Therefore, the results older S1eS7 and younger layers S8eS The early Neolithic settlement and the hiatus 4.

Environmental conditions prior to the Neolithic settlement ment activity at the site. The charcoal assemblage indicates the The upper part of the loess has been redeposited at around existence of a riparian forest characterised by Alnus and Fraxinus in years before present Lubos et al. Data from other proposed by Dreibrodt et al. Subsequent moderate proxies for layer S1eS2 is few; therefore, the indication of the runoff events or snow melts might have triggered the redeposition existing proxies has to be interpreted as low.

For the settlement gap process. Whether this slope instability could be correlated with the hiatus Lubos et al. However, the proxies precision. Early Holocene slope deposits of similar age have been taken from exposure 17 cannot clearly be assigned to one of the Please cite this article in press as: Lubos, C. The mollusc assemblage taken from The highest values of extraneous material can be reconstructed exposure 17 is strongly dominated by species characteristic of open for the Bronze Age e cal BC; S6eS The Early Bronze habitats with a warm and dry climate.

It cannot, however, be regarding all proxies. The charcoal record suggests the continuance excluded that the charcoal too small for 14C dating is inherited of the riparian forest, intermingled with some apple subfamily from the parent loess. The low concentration of dicotyledon phy- trees and pioneer species. There is no indication stronger human impact. Very few fragments of unionid mussels in for an entirely closed wood cover during that period. The content of leaf formation under slightly humid conditions.

The long phase of hiatus and stem phytoliths increases slightly. Since this occurs simulta- ca. A slight change in the clay mineral assemblage from the onset of the utilisation of plant material for tempering i. Perhaps an initial phase of wood pearance of vermiculite, HIV and decreasing amount of chlorite e substitution with loam wattle and daub constructions tempered indicates that these minerals in the loess are inherited from its with plant and minerogenic material starts at that time see below.

A slight increase in silica skeletons appears to indicate an import of biomass that grew under conditions of favourable water avail- 4. Settlement mound formation ability. Since there is no indication at that time for wetter climatic The Late Neolithic ca. This phase was charac- Magny, a change in climate is improbable.

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