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Marcus Varro , in that book of his Antiquities of Man which treats Of War and Peace , defines indutiae a truce in two ways. For a truce is not a peace — since war continues, although fighting ceases — nor is it restricted to a camp or to a few days only. For what are we to say if a truce is made for some months, and the troops withdraw from camp into the towns? Have we not then also a truce. Again, if a truce is to be defined as only lasting for a few days, what are we to say of the fact, recorded by Quadrigarius in the first book of his Annals, that Gaius Pontius the Samnite asked the Roman dictator for a truce of six hours.

The definition "a holiday in war," too, is rather happy than clear or precise. But it surely was not Varro 's task to define a truce too scrupulously, and to observe all the laws and canons of definition. I have for a long time been inquiring into the derivation of indutiae. I believe that indutiae is made up of inde uti iam "that from then on". The stipulation of a truce is to this effect, that there shall be no fighting and no trouble up to a fixed time, but that after that time all the laws of war shall again be in force.

Therefore, since a definite date is set and an agreement is made that before that date there shall be no fighting but when that time comes, "that from then on," fighting shall be resumed: by uniting as it were and combining those words which I have mentioned the term indutiae is formed. But Aurelius Opilius, in the first book of his work entitled The Muses , says: "It is called a truce when enemies pass back and forth from one side to another safely and without strife; from this the name seems to be formed, as if it were initiae, that is, an approach and entrance.

I once asked Taurus in his lecture-room whether a wise man got angry. For after his daily discourses he often gave everyone the opportunity of asking whatever questions he wished. On this occasion he first discussed the disease or passion of anger at length, setting forth what is to be found in the books of the ancients and in his own commentaries; then, turning to me who had asked the question, he said: "This is what I think about getting angry.

Plutarch ," said he, "once gave orders that one of his slaves, a worthless and insolent fellow, but one whose ears had been filled with the teachings and arguments of philosophy, should be stripped of his tunic for some offence or other and flogged. They had begun to beat him, and the slave kept protesting that he did not deserve the flogging; that he was guilty of no wrong, no crime.

Finally, while the lashing still went on, he began to shout, no longer uttering complaints or shrieks and groans, but serious reproaches. Then Plutarch calmly and mildly made answer: 'What makes you think, scoundrel, that I am now angry with you. Is it from my expression, my voice, my colour, or even my words, that you believe me to be in the grasp of anger? In my opinion my eyes are not fierce, my expression is not disturbed, I am neither shouting madly nor foaming at the mouth nor getting red in the face; I am saying nothing to cause me shame or regret; I am not trembling at all from anger or making violent gestures.

For all these actions, if you did but know it, are the usual signs of angry passions. Among voluntary tasks and exercises for strengthening his body for any chance demands upon its endurance we are told that Socrates habitually practised this one. When Favorinus in his discussion of the man's fortitude and his many other virtues had reached this point, he said: "He often stood from sun to sun, more rigid than the tree trunks. Even amid the havoc of that plague which, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, devastated Athens with a deadly species of disease, by temperate and abstemious habits he is said to have avoided the ill-effects of indulgence and retained his physical vigour so completely, that he was not at all affected by the calamity common to all.

The governor of the province of Crete , a man of senatorial rank, had come to Athens for the purpose of visiting and becoming acquainted with the philosopher Taurus , and in company with this same governor was his father.

Taurus , having just dismissed his pupils, was sitting before the door of his room, and we stood by his side conversing with him. In came the governor of the province and with him his father. Taurus arose quietly, and after salutations had been exchanged, sat down again. Presently the single chair that was at hand was brought and placed near them, while others were being fetched.

Taurus invited the governor's father to be seated. The substance of the discussions was this: In public places, functions and acts the rights of fathers, compared with the authority of sons who are magistrates, give way somewhat and are eclipsed: but when they are sitting together unofficially in the intimacy of home life, or walking about, or even reclining at a dinner party of intimate friends, then the official distinctions between a son who is a magistrate and a father who is a private citizen are at an end, while those that are natural and inherent come into play.

Therefore enjoy the same priority of honours at my house which it is proper for you to enjoy in your own home as the older man. Moreover, it has seemed not out of place to add what I have read in Claudius about the etiquette of father and son under such circumstances. I therefore quote Quadrigarius ' actual words, transcribed from the sixth book of his Annals: "The consuls then elected were Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus for the second time and Quintus Fabius Maximus , son of the Maximus who had been consul the year before.

The father, at the time proconsul, mounted upon a horse met his son the consul, and because he was his father, would not dismount, nor did the lictors, who knew that the men lived in the most perfect harmony, presume to order him to do so. As the father drew near, the consul said: "What next? Fabius obeyed the order and warmly commended his son for asserting the authority which he had as the gift of the people. The letter H or perhaps it should be called a breathing rather than a letter was added by our forefathers to give strength and vigour to the pronunciation of many words, in order that they might have a fresher and livelier sound; and this they seem to have done from their devotion to the Attic language, and under its influence.

In the same way our ancestors said lachrumae tears , sepulchrum burial-place , ahenum of bronze , vehemens violent , incohare begin , helluari gormandize , hallucinari dream , honera burdens , honustum burdened.

For in all these words there seems to be no reason for that letter, or breathing, except to increase the force and vigour of the sound by adding certain sinews, so to speak. But apropos of the inclusion of ahenum among my examples, I recall that Fidus Optatus , a grammarian of considerable repute in Rome , showed me a remarkably old copy of the second book of the Aeneid, bought in the Sigillaria for twenty pieces of gold, which was believed to have belonged to Virgil himself.

In that book, although the following two lines were written thus: Before the entrance-court, hard by the gate, With sheen of brazen aena arms proud Pyrrhus gleams, we observed that the letter H had been added above the line, changing aena to ahena.

So too in the best manuscripts we find this verse of Virgil 's written as follows: Or skims with leaves the bubbling brass's aheni wave. When inquiry is made about the choice of a prosecutor, and judgment is rendered on the question to which of two or more persons the prosecution of a defendant, or a share in the prosecution, is to be entrusted, this process and examination by jurors is called divinatio. The reason for the use of this term is a matter of frequent inquiry.

Gavius Bassus , in the third book of his work On the Origin of Terms, says: "This kind of trial is called divinatio because the juror ought in a sense to divine what verdict it is proper for him to give. But at least he seems to be trying to show that divinatio is used because in other trials it was the habit of the juror to be influenced by what he has heard and by what has been shown by evidence or by witnesses; but in this instance, when a prosecutor is to be selected, the considerations which can influence a juror are very few and slight, and therefore he must, so to speak, "divine" what man is the better fitted to make the accusation.

Thus Bassus. But some others think that the divinatio is so called because, while prosecutor and defendant are two things that are, as it were, related and connected, so that neither can exist without the other, yet in this form of trial, while there is already a defendant, there is as yet no prosecutor, and therefore the factor which is still lacking and unknown — namely, what man is to be the prosecutor — must be supplied by divination.

Favorinus used to say of Plato and Lysias : "If you take a single word from a discourse of Plato or change it, and do it with the utmost skill, you will nevertheless mar the elegance of his style; if you do the same to Lysias , you will obscure his meaning. Some grammarians of an earlier time, men by no means without learning and repute, who wrote commentaries on Virgil , and among them Annaeus Cornutus , criticize the poet's use of a word in the following verses as careless and negligent: That, her white waist with howling monsters girt, Dread Scylla knocked about vexasse Ulysses ' ships Amid the swirling depths, and, piteous sight!

The trembling sailors with her sea- dogs rent. They think, namely, that vexasse is a weak word, indicating a slight and trivial annoyance, and not adapted to such a horror as the sudden seizing and rending of human beings by a ruthless monster. They also criticize another word in the following: Who has not heard Of king Eurystheus ' pitiless commands And altars of Busiris , the unpraised inlaudati?

Inlaudati, they say, is not at all a suitable word, but is quite inadequate to express abhorrence of a wretch who, because he used to sacrifice guests from all over the world, was not merely "undeserving of praise," but rather deserving of the abhorrence and execration of the whole human race. They have criticized still another word in the verse: Through tunic rough squalentem with gold the sword drank from his pierced side, on the ground that it is out of place to say auro squalentem, since the filth of squalor is quite opposed to the brilliance and splendour of gold.

Now as to the word vexasse, I believe the following answer may be made: vexasse is an intensive verb, and is obviously derived from vehere, in which there is already some notion of compulsion by another; for a man who is carried is not his own master. But vexare, which is derived from vehere, unquestionably implies greater force and impulse. For vexare is properly used of one who is seized and carried away, and dragged about hither and yon; just as taxare denotes more forcible and repeated action than tangere, from which it is undoubtedly derived; and iactare a much fuller and more vigorous action than iacere, from which it comes; and quassare something severer and more violent than quatere.

Therefore, merely because vexare is commonly used of the annoyance of smoke or wind or dust is no reason why the original force and meaning of the word should be lost; and that meaning was preserved by the earlier writers who, as became them, spoke correctly and clearly. Marcus Cato , in the speech which he wrote On the Achaeans , has these words: "And when Hannibal was rending and harrying vexaret the land of Italy. Marcus Tullius , in his fourth Oration against Verres , wrote: "This was so pillaged and ravaged by that wretch, that it did not seem to have been laid waste vexata by an enemy who in the heat of war still felt some religious scruple and some respect for customary law, but by barbarous pirates.

One is of this kind: There is absolutely no one who is of so perverted a character as not sometimes to do or say something that can be commended laudari. And therefore this very ancient line has become a familiar proverb: Oft-times even a fool expresses himself to the purpose. But one who, on the contrary, in his every act and at all times, deserves no praise laude at all is inlaudatus, and such a man is the very worst and most despicable of all mortals, just as freedom from all reproach makes one inculpatus blameless.

Now inculpatus is the synonym for perfect goodness; therefore conversely inlaudatus represents the limit of extreme wickedness. It is for that reason that Homer usually bestows high praise, not by enumerating virtues, but by denying faults; for example: "And not unwillingly they charged," and again: Not then would you divine Atrides see Confused, inactive, nor yet loath to fight.

Epicurus too in a similar way defined the greatest pleasure as the removal and absence of all pain, in these words: "The utmost height of pleasure is the removal of all that pains. Another defence of inlaudatus is this: laudare in early Latin means "to name" and "cite.

Conversely, the inlaudatus is the same as the inlaudabilis, namely, one who is worthy neither of mention nor remembrance, and is never to be named. There remains the third criticism, his use of the expression "a tunic rough with gold. For squalere is used of the thick, rough scales squamae which are to be seen on the skins of fish or snakes.

This is made clear both by others and indeed by this same poet in several passages; thus: A skin his covering was, plumed with brazen scales squamis And clasped with gold. Accius too in the Pelopidae writes thus: This serpent 's scales squamae rough gold and purple wrought. Thus we see that squalere was applied to whatever was overloaded and excessively crowded with anything, in order that its strange appearance might strike terror into those who looked upon it.

So too on neglected and scaly bodies the deep layer of dirt was called squalor, and by long and continued use in that sense the entire word has become so corrupted, that finally squalor has come to be used of nothing but filth. It is a frequent subject of discussion with philosophers, whether a father should always be obeyed, whatever the nature of his commands. As to this question writers On Duty, both Greeks and our own countrymen, have stated that there are three opinions to be noticed and considered, and these they have differentiated with great acuteness.

The first is, that all a father's commands must be obeyed. Since at first sight this last opinion is altogether shameful, I shall begin by stating what has been said on that point. If it is right, it is not to be obeyed because it is his order, but the thing must be done because it is right that it be done. If his command is wrong, surely that should on no account be done which ought not to be done. But I have neither heard that this view has met with approval — for it is a mere quibble, both silly and foolish, as I shall presently show.

For what if he shall command treason to one's country, a mother's murder, or some other base or impious deed. The intermediate view, therefore, has seemed best and safest, that some commands are to be obeyed and others not. But yet they say that commands which ought not to be obeyed must nevertheless be declined gently and respectfully, without excessive aversion or bitter recrimination, and rather left undone than spurned.

But that conclusion from which it is inferred, as has been said above, that a father is never to be obeyed, is faulty, and may be refuted and disposed of as follows. All human actions are, as learned men have decided, either honourable or base. Whatever is inherently right or honourable, such as keeping faith, defending one's country, loving one's friends, ought to be done whether a father commands it or not. For since each of these acts, in its actual nature and of itself, is neither honourable nor base, if a father should command it, he ought to be obeyed.

But if he should order his son to marry a woman of ill repute, infamous and criminal, or to speak in defence of a Catiline , a Tubulus , or a Publius Clodius , of course he ought not to be obeyed, since by the addition of a certain degree of evil these acts cease to be inherently neutral and indifferent. Hence the premise of those who say that "the commands of a father are either honourable or base" is incomplete, and it cannot be considered what the Greeks call "a sound and regular disjunctive proposition.

Plutarch , in the second book of his essay On Homer , asserts that Epicurus made use of an incomplete, perverted and faulty syllogism, and he quotes Epicurus 's own words: " Death is nothing to us, for what is dissolved is without perception, and what is without perception is nothing to us.

But this syllogism," says Plutarch , "cannot advance, unless that premise be first presented. For the same reason, too, he put the conclusion of the syllogism, not at the end, but at the beginning; for who does not see that this also was not due to inadvertence?. In Plato too you will often find syllogisms in which the order prescribed in the schools is disregarded and inverted, with a kind of lofty disdain of criticism. In the same book, Plutarch also finds fault a second time with Epicurus for using an inappropriate word and giving it an incorrect meaning.

Now Epicurus wrote as follows: "The utmost height of pleasure is the removal of everything that pains. In bringing this charge against Epicurus Plutarch is "word-chasing" with excessive minuteness and almost with frigidity. Servius Sulpicius , an authority on civil law and a man well versed in letters, wrote to Marcus Varro and asked him to explain the meaning of a term which was used in the records of the censors; the term in question was favisae Capitolinae. Varro wrote in reply that he recalled that Quintus Catulus , when in charge of the restoration of the Capitol , had said that it had been his desire to lower the area Capitolina , in order that the ascent to the temple might have more steps and that the podium might be higher, to correspond with the elevation and size of the pediment; but that he had been unable to carry out his plan because the favisae had prevented.

These, he said, were certain underground chambers and cisterns in the area, in which it was the custom to store ancient statues that had fallen from the temple, and some other consecrated objects from among the votive offerings.

And then Varro goes on to say in the same letter, that he had never found any explanation of the term favisae in literature, but that Quintus Valerius Sorianus used to assert that what we called by their Greek name thesauri treasuries the early Latins termed flavisae, their reason being that there was deposited in them, not uncoined copper and silver, but stamped and minted money. His theory therefore was, he said, that the second letter had dropped out of the word flavisae, and that certain chambers and pits, which the attendants of the Capitol used for the preservation of old and sacred objects, were called favisae.

We read in the annals that Lucius Sicinius Dentatus , who was tribune of the commons in the consulship of Spurius Tarpeius and Aulus Aternius, was a warrior of incredible energy; that he won a name for his exceeding great valour, and was called the Roman Achilles. It is said that he fought with the enemy in one hundred and twenty battles, and had not a scar on his back, but forty-five in front; that golden crowns were given him eight times, the siege crown once, mural crowns three times, and civic crowns fourteen times; that eighty-three neck chains were awarded him, more than one hundred and sixty armlets, and eighteen spears; he was presented besides with twenty-five decorations.

Among those very early laws of Solon which were inscribed upon wooden tablets at Athens , and which, promulgated by him, the Athenians ratified by penalties and oaths, to ensure their permanence, Aristotle says that there was one to this effect: "If because of strife and disagreement civil dissension shall ensue and a division of the people into two parties, and if for that reason each side, led by their angry feelings, shall take up arms and fight, then if anyone at that time, and in such a condition of civil discord, shall not ally himself with one or the other faction, but by himself and apart shall hold aloof from the common calamity of the State, let him be deprived of his home, his country, and all his property, and be an exile and an outlaw.

Then those who had profoundly and thoroughly studied the purpose and meaning of the law declared that it was designed, not to increase, but to terminate, dissension. And that is exactly so. For if all good men, who have been unequal to checking the dissension at the outset, do not abandon the aroused and frenzied people, but divide and ally themselves with one or the other faction, then the result will be, that when they have become members of the two opposing parties, and, being men of more than ordinary influence, have begun to guide and direct those parties, harmony can best be restored and established through the efforts of such men, controlling and soothing as they will the members of their respective factions, and desiring to reconcile rather than destroy their opponents.

The philosopher Favorinus thought that this same course ought to be adopted also with brothers, or with friends, who are at odds; that is, that those who are neutral and kindly disposed towards both parties, if they have had little influence in bringing about a reconciliation because they have not made their friendly feelings evident, should then take sides, some one and some the other, and through this manifestation of devotion pave the way for restoring harmony.

The early orators and writers of history or of poetry called even one son or daughter liberi, using the plural. And I have not only noticed this usage at various times in the works of several other of the older writers, but I just now ran across it in the fifth book of Sempronius Asellio 's History. This Asellio was military tribune under Publius Scipio Africanus at Numantia and wrote a detailed account of the events in whose action he himself took part.

His words about Tiberius Gracchus , tribune of the commons, at the time when he was killed on the Capitol , are as follows: "For whenever Gracchus left home, he was never accompanied by less than three or four thousand men. In an old copy of the speech of Marcus Cato , which is entitled Against the Exile Tiberius , we find the following words: "What if with veiled head you had kept your recognizance?.

Cato indeed wrote stitisses, correctly; but revisers have boldly and falsely written an E and put stetisses in all the editions, on the ground that stitisses is an unmeaning and worthless reading. Nay, it is rather they themselves that are ignorant and worthless, in not knowing that Cato wrote stitisses because sisteretur is used of recognizance, not staretur. Among the earliest Romans, as a rule, neither birth nor wealth was more highly honoured than age, but older men were reverenced by their juniors almost like gods and like their own parents, and everywhere and in every kind of honour they were regarded as first and of prior right.

From a dinner-party, too, older men were escorted home by younger men, as we read in the records of the past, a custom which, as tradition has it, the Romans took over from the Lacedemonians , by whom, in accordance with the laws of Lycurgus , greater honour on all occasions was paid to greater age. But after it came to be realised that progeny were a necessity for the State, and there was occasion to add to the productivity of the people by premiums and other inducements, then in certain respects greater deference was shown to men who had a wife, and to those who had children, than to older men who had neither wives nor children.

Thus in chapter seven of the Julian law priority in assuming the emblems of power is given, not to the elder of the consuls, but to him who either has more children under his control than his colleague, or has lost them in war. But if both have an equal number of children, the one who has a wife, or is eligible for marriage, is preferred. If, however, both are married and are fathers of the same number of children, then the standard of honour of early times is restored, and the elder is first to assume the rods.

But when both consuls are without wives and have the same number of sons, or are husbands but have no children, there is no provision in that law as to age. However, I hear that it was usual for those who had legal priority to yield the rods for the first month to colleagues who were either considerably older than they, or of much higher rank, or who were entering upon a second consulship. Virgil has the following lines in the sixth book: Yon princeling, thou beholdest leaning there Upon a bloodless lance, shall next emerge Into the realms of day.

He is the first Of half- Italian strain, thy last-born heir, To thine old age by fair Lavinia given, Called Silvius , a royal Alban name Of sylvan birth and sylvan nurture he , A king himself and sire of kings to come, By whom our race in Alba Longa reign. It appeared to Caesellius that there was utter inconsistency between thy last-born heir and To thine old age by fair Lavinia given, Of sylvan birth.

For if, as is shown by the testimony of almost all the annals, this Silvius was born after the death of Aeneas , and for that reason was given the forename Postumus , with what propriety does Virgil add: To thine old age by fair Lavinia given, Of sylvan birth. For these words would seem to imply that while Aeneas was still living, but was already an old man, a son Silvius was born to him and was reared. Therefore Caesellius , in his Notes on Early Readings, expressed the opinion that the meaning of the words was as follows: " Postuma proles," said he, "does not mean a child born after the death of his father, but the one who was born last; this applies to Silvius , who was born late and after the usual time, when Aeneas was already an old man.

Therefore Sulpicius Apollinaris , among other criticisms of Caesellius , notes this statement of his as an error, and says that the cause of the error is the phrase quem tibi longaevo. But yet a "long life" is one thing, and an "unending life" another, and the gods are not called "of great age," but "immortal. After careful observation Marcus Tullius noted that the prepositions in and con, when prefixed to nouns and verbs, are lengthened and prolonged when they are followed by the initial letters of sapiens and felix; but that in all other instances they are pronounced short.

Cicero 's words are: "Indeed, what can be more elegant than this, which does not come about from a natural law, but in accordance with a kind of usage? Consult the rules of grammar and they will censor your usage; refer the matter to your ears and they will approve. Ask why it is so; they will say that it pleases them. And language ought to gratify the pleasure of the ear. In these words of which Cicero spoke it is clear that the principle is one of euphony, but what are we to say of the preposition pro?

For although it is often shortened or lengthened, yet it does not conform to this rule of Marcus Tullius. For it is not always lengthened when it is followed by the first letter of the word fecit, which Cicero says has the effect of lengthening the prepositions in and con. For we pronounce proficisci, profugere, profundere, profanum and profestum with the first vowel short, but proferre, profligare and proficere with that syllable long.

Why is it then that this letter, which, according to Cicero 's observation, has the effect of lengthening, does not have the same effect by reason of rule or of euphony in all words of the same kind, but lengthens the vowel in one word and shortens it in another. Nor, as a matter of fact, is the particle con lengthened only when followed by that letter which Cicero mentioned.

But after all, in these cases which I have cited one can see that this particle is lengthened because the letter n is dropped; for the loss of a letter is compensated by the lengthening of the syllable. This principle is observed also in the word cogo. Phaedo of Elis belonged to that famous Socratic band and was on terms of close intimacy with Socrates and Plato. His name was given by Plato to that inspired dialogue of his on the immortality of the soul.

This Phaedo , though a slave, was of noble person and intellect, and according to some writers, in his boyhood was driven to prostitution by his master, who was a pander. We are told that Cebes the Socratic , at Socrates ' earnest request, bought Phaedo and gave him the opportunity of studying philosophy.

And he afterwards became a distinguished philosopher, whose very tasteful discourses on Socrates are in circulation. There were not a few other slaves too afterwards who became famous philosophers. Diogenes the Cynic also served as a slave, but he was a freeborn man, who was sold into slavery.

When Xeniades of Corinth wished to buy him and asked whether he knew any trade, Diogenes replied: "I know how to govern free men. I have observed that the verb rescire has a peculiar force, which is not in accord with the general meaning of other words compounded with that same preposition; for we do not use rescire in the same way that we do rescribere write in reply , relegere reread , restituere restore ,.

But why the particle re has this special force in this one word alone, I for my part am still inquiring. For I have never yet found that rescivi or rescire was used by those who were careful in their diction, otherwise than of things which were purposely concealed, or happened contrary to anticipation and expectation.

Thus Naevius in the Triphallus wrote: If ever I discover rescivero that my son Has borrowed money for a love affair, Straightway I'll put you where you'll spit no more. Claudius Quadrigarius in the first book of his Annals says: "When the Lucanians discovered resciverunt that they had been deceived and tricked. In the third book of his treatise On Farming, Marcus Varro says that the name leporaria is given to certain enclosures, in which wild animals are kept alive and fed.

I have appended Varro 's own words: "There are three means of keeping animals on the farm — bird houses, leporaria warrens , and fish-ponds. I am now using the term ornithones of all kinds of birds that are ordinarily kept within the walls of the farmhouse. Leporaria I wish you to understand, not in the sense in which our remote ancestors used the word, of places in which only hares are kept, but of all enclosures which are connected with a farmhouse and contain live animals that are fed.

But as to the word roboraria, which we find in the writings of Scipio , who used the purest diction of any man of his time, I have heard several learned men at Rome assert that this means what we call vivaria and that the name came from the "oaken" planks of which the enclosures were made, a kind of enclosure which we see in many places in Italy.

This is the passage from Scipio 's fifth oration Against Claudius Asellus : "When he had seen the highly-cultivated fields and well-kept farmhouses, he ordered them to set up a measuring rod on the highest point in that district; and from there to build a straight road, in some places through the midst of vineyards, in others through the roborarium and the fish-pond, in still others through the farm buildings.

Several of us, Greeks and Romans, who were pursuing the same studies, were crossing in the same boat from Aigina to the Piraeus. It was night, the sea was calm, the time summer, and the sky bright and clear. So we all sat together in the stern and watched the brilliant stars. Now 'because we see seven stars' is not a sufficient answer, but I desire to be informed at some length," said I, "of the meaning of the whole idea which we express by the word septentriones. For they declare that triones of itself has no meaning, but is a mere addition to the word; just as in our word quinquatrus, so called because five is the number of days after the Ides, atrus means nothing.

But for my part, I agree with Lucius Aelius and Marcus Varro , who wrote that oxen were called triones, a rustic term it is true, as if they were terriones, that is to say, adapted to ploughing and cultivating the earth. After giving this opinion, Varro further added," said he, "that he suspected that these seven stars were called triones rather for the reason that they are so situated that every group of three neighbouring stars forms a triangle, that is to say, a three-sided figure. At Favorinus ' table, when he dined with friends, there was usually read either an old song of one of the lyric poets, or something from history, now in Greek and now in Latin.

Thus one day there was read there, in a Latin poem, the word Iapyx , the name of a wind, and the question was asked what wind this was, from what quarter it blew, and what was the origin of so rare a term; and we also asked Favorinus to be so good as to inform us about the names and quarters of the other winds, since there was no general agreement as to their designations, positions or number.

Then Favorinus ran on as follows: "It is well known," said he, "that there are four quarters and regions of the heavens — east, west, south and north. East and west are movable and variable points; south and north are permanently fixed and unalterable. Therefore the wind which blows from the sun's spring, or equinoctial, rising is called eurus, a word derived, as your etymologists say, from the Greek which means 'that which flows from the east.

These then are the three east winds: aquilo, volturnus and eurus, and eurus lies between the other two. These two opposite quarters of the sky, east and west, have, as we see, six winds opposite to one another.

From this list of eight winds some subtract four, and they declare that they do so on the authority of Homer , who knows only four winds: eurus, auster, aquilo and favonius. There are others, on the contrary, who make twelve winds instead of eight, by inserting a third group of four in the intervening space about the south and north, in the same way that the second four are placed between the original two at east and west.

Thus our Gauls call the wind which blows from their land, the most violent wind to which they are exposed, circius, doubtless from its whirling and stormy character. This is, I think, about the same as caurus; for it is a west wind and seems to blow from the quarter opposite eurus.

Therefore Virgil says that Cleopatra , when fleeing to Egypt after the sea-fight, was borne onward by Iapyx , and he called an Apulian horse by the same name as the wind, that is, Iapyx. There is also a wind named caecias, which, according to Aristotle blows in such a way as not to drive away clouds, but to attract them. This, he says, is the origin of the proverbial line: Attracting to oneself, as caecias does the clouds.

Moreover, besides these which I have mentioned there are in various places other names of winds, of new coinage and each peculiar to its own region, for example the Atabulus of Horace ; these too I intended to discuss; I would also have added those which are called etesiae and prodromi, which at a fixed time of year, namely when the dog -star rises, blow from one or another quarter of the heavens; and since I have drunk a good bit, I would have prated on about the meaning of all these terms, had I not already done a deal of talking while all of you have been silent, as if I were delivering an exhibition speech.

But as to his statement that the wind which blows from the land of Gaul is called circius, Marcus Cato in his Origins calls that wind, not circius, but cercius. For writing about the Spaniards who dwell on this side the Ebro , he set down these words: "But in this district are the finest iron and silver mines, also a great mountain of pure salt; the more you take from it, the more it grows.

The cercius wind, when you speak, fills your mouth; it overturns an armed man or a loaded wagon. I often read comedies which our poets have adapted and translated from the Greeks — Menander or Posidippus , Apollodorus or Alexis , and also some other comic writers.

And while I am reading them, they do not seem at all bad; on the contrary, they appear to be written with a wit and charm which you would say absolutely could not be surpassed. But if you compare and place beside them the Greek originals from which they came, and if you match individual passages, reading them together alternately with care and attention, the Latin versions at once begin to appear exceedingly commonplace and mean; so dimmed are they by the wit and brilliance of the Greek comedies, which they were unable to rival.

Only recently I had an experience of this kind. I was reading the Plocium or Necklace of Caecilius , much to the delight of myself and those who were present. The fancy took us to read also the Plocium of Menander , from which Caecilius had translated the said comedy. But after we took Menander in hand, good Heavens!

Upon my word, the armour of Diomedes and of Glaucus were not more different in value. Our reading had reached the passage where the aged husband was complaining of his rich and ugly wife, because he had been forced to sell his maid-servant, a girl skilled at her work and very good looking, since his wife suspected her of being his mistress.

I shall say nothing of the great difference; but I have had the lines of both poets copied and submitted to others for their decision. This is Menander : 'Now may our heiress fair on both ears sleep. A great and memorable feat is hers; For she has driven forth, as she had planned, The wench that worried her, that all henceforth Of Crobyle alone the face may see, And that the famous woman, she my wife, May also be my tyrant.

From the face Dame Nature gave her, she's an ass among apes, As says the adage. I would silent be About that night, the first of many woes. Alas that I took Crobyle to wife, With sixteen talents and a foot of nose. Then too can one her haughtiness endure? By Zeus Olympius and Athena , no! She has dismissed a maid who did her work More quickly than the word was given her, More quickly far than one will bring her back. And she has all that you would wish She had not, save the dowry that she brought.

Let him who's wise a lesson take from me, Who, like a free man captive to the foe, Am slave, though town and citadel are safe. While longing for her death, a living corpse am I. She says I've secret converse with our maid — That's what she said, and so belaboured me With tears, with prayers, with importunities, That I did sell the wench. Now, I suppose, She blabs like this to neighbours and friends: "Which one of you, when in the bloom of youth, Could from her husband win what I from mine Have gained, who've robbed him of his concubine.

For example, that same old husband, talking with another old man, a neighbour of his, and cursing the arrogance of his rich wife, says: I have to wife an heiress ogress, man! I did not tell you that? What, really? She is the mistress of my house and lands, Of all that's hereabout. And in return I have by Zeus! She scolds not only me, but her son too, Her daughter most of all.

But in this passage Caecilius chose rather to play the buffoon than to be appropriate and suitable to the character that he was representing. For this is the way he spoiled the passage: But tell me sir; is your wife captious, pray? When I come home And sit beside her, she with fasting breath Straight kisses me.

She'd have you spew up what you've drunk abroad. It is clear what your judgment ought to be about that scene also, found in both comedies, which is about of the following purport. The daughter of a poor man was violated during a religious vigil. This was unknown to her father, and she was looked upon as a virgin. Being with child as the result of that assault, at the proper time she is in labour.

An honest slave, standing before the door of the house, knowing nothing of the approaching delivery of his master's daughter, and quite unaware that violence had been offered her, hears the groans and prayers of the girl labouring in childbirth; he gives expression to his fear, anger, suspicion, pity and grief. In the Greek comedy all these emotions and feelings of his are wonderfully vivid and clear, but in Caecilius they are all dull and without any grace and dignity of expression.

Afterwards, when the same slave by questioning has found out what has happened, in Menander he utters this lament: Alas! How foolish is the man Who keeps no watch o'er his necessities, And if he luckless be in life's routine, Can't use his wealth as cloak, but buffeted By ev'ry storm, lives helpless and in grief. All wretchedness he shares, of blessings none, Thus sorrowing for one I'd all men warn. Let us consider whether Caecilius was sufficiently inspired to approach the sincerity and realism of these words.

These are the lines of Caecilius , in which he gives some mangled fragments from Menander , patching them with the language of tragic bombast: Unfortunate in truth the man, who poor, Yet children gets, to share his poverty. His fortune and his state at once are clear; The ill fame of the rich their set conceals. Accordingly, as I said above, when I read these passages of Caecilius by themselves, they seem by no means lacking in grace and spirit, but when I compare and match them with the Greek version, I feel that Caecilius should not have followed a guide with whom he could not keep pace.

Frugality among the early Romans, and moderation in food and entertainments were secured not only by observance and training at home, but also by public penalties and the inviolable provisions of numerous laws. Only recently I read in the Miscellanies of Ateius Capito an old decree of the senate, passed in the consulship of Gaius Fannius and Marcus Valerius Messala , which provides that the leading citizens, who according to ancient usage "interchanged" at the Megalensian games that is, acted as host to one another in rotation , should take oath before the consuls in set terms, that they would not spend on each dinner more than one hundred and twenty asses in addition to vegetables, bread and wine; that they would not serve foreign, but only native, wine, nor use at table more than one hundred pounds' weight of silverware.

But subsequent to that decree of the senate the law of Fannius was passed, which allowed the expenditure of one hundred asses a day at the Ludi Romani and the plebeian games, at the Saturnalia , and on certain other days; of thirty asses on ten additional days each month; but on all other days of only ten.

This is the law to which the poet Lucilius alludes when he says: The paltry hundred pence of Fannius. In regard to this some of the commentators on Lucilius have been mistaken in thinking that Fannius ' law authorized a regular expenditure of a hundred asses on every kind of day. For, as I have stated above, Fannius authorized one hundred asses on certain holidays which he expressly named, but for all other days he limited the daily outlay to thirty asses for some days and to ten for others.

Next the Licinian law was passed which, while allowing the outlay of one hundred asses on designated days, as did the law of Fannius , conceded two hundred asses for weddings and set a limit of thirty for other days; however, after naming a fixed weight of dried meat and salted provisions for each day, it granted the indiscriminate and unlimited use of the products of earth, vine and orchard. This law the poet Laevius mentions in his Erotopaegnia. These are the words of Laevius , by which he means that a kid that had been brought for a feature was sent away and the dinner served with fruit and vegetables, as the Licinian law had provided: The Licinian law is introduced, The liquid light to the kid restored.

Lucilius also has the said law in mind in these words: Let us evade the law of Licinius. Afterwards, when these laws were illegible from the rust of age and forgotten, when many men of abundant means were gormandizing, and recklessly pouring their family and fortune into an abyss of dinners and banquets, Lucius Sulla in his dictatorship proposed a law to the people, which provided that on the Kalends, Ides and Nones, on days of games, and on certain regular festivals, it should be proper and lawful to spend three hundred sesterces on a dinner, but on all other days no more than thirty.

Besides these laws we find also an Aemilian law, setting a limit not on the expense of dinners, but on the kind and quantity of food. Then the law of Antius , besides curtailing outlay, contained the additional provision, that no magistrate or magistrate elect should dine out anywhere, except at the house of stipulated persons. Lastly, the Julian law came before the people during the principate of Caesar Augustus , by which on working days two hundred sesterces is the limit, on the Kalends, Ides and Nones and some other holidays, three hundred, but at weddings and the banquets following them, a thousand.

Ateius Capito says that there is still another edict — but whether of the deified Augustus or of Tiberius Caesar I do not exactly remember — by which the outlay for dinners on various festal days was increased from three hundred sesterces to two thousand, to the end that the rising tide of luxury might be restrained at least within those limits. Now two distinguished Greek grammarians, Aristarchus and Crates , defended with the utmost vigour, the one analogy, the other anomaly.

The eighth book of Marcus Varro 's treatise On the Latin Language, dedicated to Cicero , maintains that no regard is paid to regularity, and points out that in almost all words usage rules. And although," he continues, "from ceno and prandeo and poto we form cenatus sum, pransus sum and potus sum, yet from destringor and extergeor and lavor we make destrinxi and extersi and lavi.

Furthermore, although from Oscus, Tuscus and Graecus we derive the adverbs Osce, Tusce and Graece, yet from Gallus and Maurus we have Gallice and Maurice; as from probus probe, from doctus docte, but from rarus there is no adverb rare, but some say raro, others rarenter. Sisenna alone used to say adsentio I agree in the senate, but later many followed his example, yet could not prevail over usage.

Therefore his utterances on the subject are, as it were, commonplaces, to cite now against analogy and again also in its favour. When the philosopher Favorinus was on his way to visit the exconsul Marcus Fronto , who was ill with the gout, he wished me also to go with him.

And when there at Fronto 's, where a number of learned men were present, a discussion took place about colours and their names, to the effect that the shades of colours are manifold, but the names for them are few and indefinite. Favorinus said: "More distinctions of colour are detected by the eye than are expressed by words and terms. For leaving out of account other incongruities, your simple colours, red rufus and green viridis , have single names, but many different shades.

And that poverty in names I find more pronounced in Latin than in Greek. There was a shelter here. She was sure it would be empty, but it did not attract her. She wanted to get as close as possible to that moaning, mysterious waste of water. It held a stark fascination for her. It drew her like a magnet. She stood on the very edge of the parade, facing the drift of rain that blew in from the sea.

How dark it was! The nearest lamp was fifty yards away! The thought came to her suddenly, taking form from the formless deep: how easy to take one single false step in that darkness! How swift the consequence, and how complete the deliverance! A short, inevitable struggle in the dark--in the dark; and then a certain release from this hateful chain called life.

It would be terrible, but so quickly over! And this misery that so galled her would be for ever past. She beat her foot on the edge with a passionate impatience. What a fool she was to suffer so--when there was nothing never had been any thing in life worth living for! Well, yes, there was Bunny. She was an absolute necessity to him. That she knew.

She was firmly convinced that he would die without her. And though he would be far, far happier dead, poor darling, she couldn't leave him to die alone. She lifted her clenched hands above her head in straining impotence. For one black moment she almost wished that Bunny were dead.

And then very suddenly, with staggering unexpectedness she received the biggest shock of her life. Two hands closed simultaneously upon her wrists, and she was drawn into two encircling arms. She uttered a startled outcry, and in the same moment began a wild and flurried struggle for freedom. But the arms that held her closed like steel springs. A man's strength forced her steadily away from the yawning blackness that stretched beyond the parade.

Something in the voice reassured her. She ceased to struggle. He took his arms away from her, but he still kept one of her wrists in a strong grasp. She could not see his face in the darkness, only his figure, which was short and stoutly built. It's damn' cheek on my part, as you were just going to remark.

But, my girl, it's easier than mucking about in a dark sea looking for 'em after they've lost their balance. He had led her to the shelter. She sat down rather helplessly, wondering if it would be possible to conceal her identity from him since it was evident that so far he had not recognized her.

He stood in front of her, squarely planted, his hand still locked upon her wrist. She had known him from the first word he had spoken, and, remembering those startling lynx eyes of his, she felt decidedly uneasy. She was sure they could see in the dark.

She spoke after a moment with slight hesitation. And if I had meant to jump over, as you imagined, I shouldn't have stood so long thinking about it. He bent down, and she was sure--quite sure--that his eyes scrutinized her and took in every detail. The next moment he released her wrist also. But--don't do it again! Accidents happen, you know. You might have had one then; and I should still have had to flounder around looking for you.

Something in his tone made her want to smile, and yet she felt so sure--so sure--that he knew her all the time. And she wanted to resent his familiarity at the same moment. For if he knew her, it was rank presumption to address her so.

She rose at length and faced him with such dignity as she could muster. If I had fallen over, the chances are that you could never have found me--or saved me if you had. I've taken it--and won on it--before now. He was not to be disconcerted, it was evident. He was plainly a difficult man to rout, one accustomed to keep his head in any emergency.

And she--she was but a slip of a girl in his estimation, and he had her at a disadvantage already. She felt her face begin to burn in the darkness. She shifted her ground. It only comes with practice--that. She turned abruptly. But he fell in beside her at once. He walked with the slight roll of a man accustomed to much riding. She imagined that he never appeared in anything but breeches and gaiters. But his tread was firm and purposeful. Quite obviously it never entered his head that she might not desire his company.

For that reason she had to submit to the arrangement though she felt herself grow more and more rigid as they neared the circle of light cast by the street-lamp. Of course he was bound to recognize her now. But they reached and passed the lamp, and he tramped straight ahead without looking at her, after the square fashion that she had somehow begun to associate with him.

They reached and passed "The Anchor" also, with its lighted bar and coarse voices and lounging figures. They began the steep ascent up which he had pushed Bunny that afternoon. It was dark enough here at least, and her self-confidence began to revive. She would put him to the test. She would pass the gate that he had seen her enter earlier in the day. If he displayed surprise or hesitation she would know that he had recognized her.

She began to get a little breathless. There was another lamp at the top of the road. She did not want to reach that. He stopped at once, and she thought she caught the glitter of his eye, seeking her own in the darkness. He came a step nearer, and laid one finger on her arm. You take a straight tip from me! If you're in any sort of trouble, go and tell someone! Don't bottle it in till it gets too big for you!

And above all, don't go step-dancing on the edge of the parade in the dark! It's a fool thing to do. He emphasized his points with impressive taps upon her arm. She felt absurdly small and meek. He rose to the occasion instantly. She had not expected that. He seemed to disconcert her at every turn. I only suggested it because I can't see a girl in trouble and pass by on the other side. He spoke quite quietly, but there was a quality in the soft voice that stirred her very strangely, something that made her for the moment forget the man's dominant personality, and feel as if a woman had uttered the words.

She put out a groping hand to him, obeying a curious impulse that would not be denied. He kept her hand for a second or two, holding it squarely, almost as if he were waiting for something. Then, without a word, he let it go. She turned back; and he went on.

And that was all; for what was the good of saying more? Her mother had made the choice, and there was no turning back. They could only go forward now along the new course, whithersoever it led. Her mother's smile was full of pathos.

He--poor little lad--isn't old enough to understand. But surely, you, at least can appreciate it. She looked so wistful as she spoke that in spite of herself Maud was moved to a very unusual show of tenderness. She turned and kissed her. She spoke out of a very definite knowledge of her mother's character. She knew well the yielding adaptability thereof. Giles Sheppard's standards would very soon be hers also, and she would speedily cease to find anything wanting in his friends.

She turned with a sigh. I shall have to get back to Bunny. She and Bunny had spent all the afternoon and evening settling into their new quarters at the Anchor Hotel, and it had been a tiring task. The bride and bridegroom had gone straight from the registry-office where the ceremony had been performed to the county town some thirty miles distant, in the one ramshackle little motor that the hotel possessed, and had returned barely in time to receive the guests whom Sheppard had invited to his wedding-feast.

Neither Maud nor her mother had been told much of the forthcoming festivity, and the girl's dismay upon learning that she was expected to attend it was considerable. She was feeling tired and depressed. Bunny was in a difficult mood, and she knew that another bad night lay before them. Still it was impossible to refuse. She could only yield with as good a grace as she could muster. Sheppard as, her point gained, she prepared smilingly to depart.

You look charming in that. Maud had not the faintest wish to look charming, but yet again she could not refuse to gratify a wish so amiably expressed. She donned the white silk, therefore, though feeling in any but a festive mood, and prepared herself for the ordeal with a grim determination to escape from it as soon as possible.

She was not tall, but her extreme slenderness gave her a decidedly regal pose. She held her head proudly and bore herself with distinction. Her eyes--those wonderful blue-violet eyes--had the aloof expression of one whose soul is far away. Giles Sheppard watched her enter the drawing-room behind her mother, and a bitter sneer crossed his bloated face.

He was utterly incapable of appreciating that innate pride of race that expressed itself in every line of her. He read only contempt for him and his in the girl's still face, and the deep resentment kindled the night before began to smoulder within him with an ever-increasing heat. How dared she show her airs and graces here? He turned with an ugly jest at her expense upon his lips to the man with whom he had been talking at her entrance; but the jest was checked unuttered.

For the man, square, thickset as a bulldog, abruptly left his side and moved forward. The quick blood mounted in Maud's face as he intercepted her. She looked at him for a second as if she would turn and flee. But he held out a steady hand to her, and she had to place hers within it. In a moment his peculiar voice accosted her. I'm Jake Bolton--the horse breaker. I had the pleasure of doing your brother a small service yesterday. Both hand and voice reassured her. She had an absurd feeling that he was meting out to her such treatment as he would have considered suitable for a nervous horse.

She forced herself to smile upon him; it was the only thing to do. He smiled in return--his pleasant open smile. I don't suppose you know many of the people here. She did not know any of them, and as Sheppard had seized upon his bride, and was presenting her in rude triumph to each in turn with much noisy laughter and coarse joking it was not difficult to slip into a corner with Jake Bolton without attracting further attention.

He stood beside her for a space while covertly she took stock of him. Yes, he actually had discarded his gaiters and was wearing evening dress. It did not seem a natural garb for him, but he carried it better than she would have expected. He still reminded her very forcibly of horses, though she could not have definitely said wherein this strong suggestion lay. His ruddy face and short, dominant nose might have belonged to a sailor.

But the brilliant chestnut eyes with their red-brown lashes were somehow not of the sea. They made her think of the reek of leather and the thud of galloping hoofs. Suddenly he turned and caught her critical survey. She dropped her eyes instantly in hot confusion, while he, as if he had just made up his mind, sat down beside her.

She answered him in a low voice; the words seemed to leap from her almost without her conscious volition. He gave a short nod as of a suspicion confirmed, and sat in silence for a little. The loud laughter of Giles Sheppard's guests filled in the pause.

Maud held herself rigidly still, repressing a nervous shiver that attacked her repeatedly. Suddenly the man beside her spoke. With relief she came out of her tense silence. He had a fall in his babyhood. He suffers terribly sometimes. She shook her head. He won't let a doctor come near him now. She resented the question; yet she answered it.

I never oppose it. Again against her will she made reply. He has missed all that is good in life. He wrinkled his forehead for a moment as if puzzled, then broke into a laugh. She stiffened on the instant, but he did not seem to notice it. He leaned towards her, and laid one finger--a short, square fore-finger--on her arm. She withdrew her arm from his touch, and regarded him with a hauteur that did not wholly veil her embarrassment.

But Maud only retired further into her shell. He accepted the snub without a sign of discomfiture. Calmly she met his look. It upsets his rest. His voice was suddenly very deliberate. He was looking her full in the face. A curious little tremor went through her. She felt as if he had pinioned her there before him. Her reply astounded herself. He is rather excited already.

I'll quiet him down. She did not want to yield--yet she yielded. He smiled. You didn't want to give in, did you? But I undertake that you will not be sorry. Thought I shouldn't see you, eh? Ah, you're a deep one, you are! I daresay now you've made up your mind that that young woman is a princess in disguise. She isn't. She's just my step-daughter, and a very cheap article, I assure you, Jake,--very cheap indeed!

The roar of laughter that greeted this sally filled the room, drowning any further remarks. Sheppard stood in the centre, swaying a little, looking round on the assembled company with a facetious grin. Jake Bolton rose and went to him. He stood with him for a moment, and Maud, shivering in her corner, marvelled that he did not look mean and insignificant beside the other's great bulk.

She wondered what he said. It was only a few words, and they were not apparently uttered with much urgency. But Sheppard's grin died away, and she fancied that for a moment--only for a moment--he looked a little sheepish. Then he clapped a great hand upon Bolton's shoulder. All right. It's for you to make the running. Come along, ladies and gentlemen! Let us feed! There was a general move, and a tall, lanky young man with a white face and black hair that shone like varnish slouched up to Maud.

She was on her feet. She looked at him with a disdain so withering that the young man wilted visibly before her. She was in fact so quivering with rage that speech would have been difficult. A very stout elderly lady, with a neck and arms that were hardly distinguishable from the red silk dress she wore, sailed up to them. We're all friends here. You won't mind going in with my boy Tom, I'm sure. He's considered quite the ladies' man, I can assure you. Miss Brian is going in with me," said Jake Bolton's smooth voice behind her.

Somehow--before she knew it--the black-haired young man was gone from her path, and her hand lay trembling within Bolton's arm. Jake Bolton said nothing either. He only piloted her through the crowd with the smile of the winner curving the corners of his mouth. They readied the dining-room, and people began to seat themselves around a long centre table.

There was no formal arrangement, and some confusion ensued in consequence. Bolton glanced round. He elbowed a way for her. The table was near a window, the alcove draped with curtains. He put her into a chair where she was screened from the eyes of those at the centre table. He seated himself opposite to her. She remained silent. The man disconcerted her. She was burningly conscious that she had not been too discreet in taking him even so far into her confidence.

He leaned slowly forward, fixing her with those relentless, lynx-like eyes. He nodded, still watching her. You'll drink champagne, of course. He got up to procure it, and Maud managed in the interval to recover some of her composure. She hesitated momentarily. I have another little one upstairs; but it is a long way off. Of course I shall sleep downstairs with Bunny. She watched his steady hand with a touch of envy. She would have given much for as cool a nerve just then.

But he smiled and refused the contest. That's right. I want to see you started. What a filthy racket they are making! I hope it won't upset your appetite any. She had never felt less hungry in her life, but out of a queer sensation of gratitude she tried to eat what he put before her. He had certainly done his best to shield her from that objectionable crowd, but she was still by no means certain that she liked the man. He was too much inclined to take her friendship for granted, too ready to presume upon a very short acquaintance.

And she was sure--quite sure now--that he had recognized her from the very first moment, down on the parade the night before. The knowledge was very disquieting. He was kind--oh, yes, he was kind. But she felt that he knew too much. And so a certain antagonism warred against her gratitude, and prevented any gracious expression thereof.

She only longed--oh, how desperately! Vain longing! Even then she knew, or shrewdly suspected, that her lot was to be cast in that same world for the rest of her mortal life. Bunny's face, pale and drawn, wearing the irritable frown so habitual to it, turned towards the opening door. Her voice was low and nervous. She looked by no means sure of Bunny's reception of the news. Behind her came Jake Bolton the trainer, alert and self-assured.

It was quite evident that he had no doubts whatever upon the subject. His thick mat of chestnut hair shone like copper in the brilliant electric light, such hair as would have been a woman's glory, but that Jake kept very closely cropped. Bolton came to his side and took the small, eager hand thrust out to him.

Bolton turned sharply, found her already bringing one and took it swiftly from her. He sat down by Bunny's side, and took the little thin hand back into his. Bunny was vastly flattered. He liked the grasp of the strong fingers also, though he would not probably have tolerated such a thing from any but this stranger. How have you been to-day? And you can call her Maud," said Bunny autocratically.

Jake turned his head and looked at her. She was standing before the fire, the red glow all about her, very slim, very graceful, very stately. She did not so much as glance at Jake, only bent a little towards the blaze so that he could not see her face.

Come and sit on my bed! It was more of a command than an invitation. Maud straightened herself and turned. But as she did so, their visitor intervened. His voice was peremptory too, but in a different way. Bunny stared at him wide-eyed. Jake met the stare with an admonitory shake of the head. Bunny's mouth opened to protest, remained open for about five seconds, and finally he said, "All right, Maud.

You can stay by the fire while we talk. And Maud, much to her own surprise, sat down in the low chair on the hearth and leaned her aching head back upon the cushion. She had her back to Bunny and his companion, and the soft murmur of the latter's voice held nought disturbing. It seemed in fact to possess something of a soothing quality, for very soon her heavy eyelids began to droop and the voice to recede into ever growing distance. For a space she still heard it, dim and remote as the splash of the waves on the shore; then very softly it was blotted out.

Her cares and her troubles all fell away from her. She sank into soundless billows of sleep. It was a perfectly dreamless repose, serene as a child's and it seemed to last indefinitely. She lay in complete content, unconscious of all the world, lapped in peace and blissfully free from the goading anxiety that usually disturbed her rest.

It was the calmest slumber she had known for many years. From it she awoke at length with a guilty start. The fall of a piece of coal had broken the happy spell. She sat up, to find herself in firelight only. Her first thought was for Bunny, and she turned in her chair and looked across the unfamiliar room.

He was lying very still in the shadows. Softly she rose and stepped across to him. Yes, he was asleep also, lying among his pillows. The chair by his side was empty, the visitor vanished. Very cautiously she bent over him. He had been lying dressed outside the bed. Now--with a thrill of amazement she realized it--he was undressed and lying between the sheets. He was breathing very quietly, and his attitude was one of easy rest. Surely some magic had been at work! On a chest of drawers near stood a glass that had contained milk.

He always had some hot milk last thing, but she had not procured it for him. She had in fact been wondering how she would obtain it to-night. Another coal fell, and she crept back to replace it. Stooping she caught sight of another glass in the fender, full of milk. It must have been there a long time, for it was barely warm. Clearly it had been intended for her. She put it to her lips and drank.

Who could have put it there? Her mother? No; she was sure that her mother would have roused her from her sleep if she had entered. She was moreover quite incapable of getting Bunny to bed now that he had grown out of childhood.

The house was very quiet. She wondered if the guests had all gone. The room was situated at the end of a long passage, so that the noise of the party had scarcely reached it. But the utter silence without as well as within made her think that it was very late.

She dared not switch on the light, but as the fire burned up again she held her watch to the blaze. Half-past two! There was no second bed in the room; only a horse-hair sofa that was far less comfortable than the chair by the fire. She lay down upon it, however, pulling over her an ancient fur travelling-rug belonging to her mother, and here she lay dozing and waking, turning over the mystery in her mind, while another quiet hour slipped away.

She was by his side with the words; she bent over him. He wanted his pillows rearranged, and when she had done it he said, "I say, when did you wake up? Bunny seemed to regard the matter as a joke. He managed very well and was jolly quick about it too. I thought you would be sure to wake, but you didn't.

And when I was settled, he asked if I didn't want anything, and I said, 'Yes, hot milk', and he crept off and got it. He brought a glass for you too. He stuck it in the fender. Have you had it? You nearly always cry out when you're lifted. He's a brick, do you know, Maud. And he seemed to know how to get hold of me without being told. Maud's amazement was growing. The man must be a genius indeed to manage Bunny in that fashion.

And he held my hand tight and sat staring across the room like a mute till somehow he got all blurred up and then I suppose I went to sleep. I never knew when he went. Did you? She had an uncanny feeling that Jake had somehow left his influence behind him in the atmosphere.

His personality seemed to dominate it still. She was sure he had meant to be kind, but a queer sense of antagonism made her resent his kindness. She did not like Bunny's whole-hearted admiration. He's been a sailor, and he's dug for gold, and he's kept a Californian store, and he's been a cow-boy on a ranch. He says the last suited him best because he's so keen on the wilds and horses.

It was out in the wilds somewhere that Lord Saltash came on him and brought him home to be his trainer. But he's British-born all the same. I knew he was that the first time I saw him. He was evidently a paragon of all the virtues in Bunny's estimation, and Maud did not attempt to express her own feelings, which were, in fact, somewhat complex.

Very deep down in her woman's soul a warning voice had begun to make itself heard, but she could not tell Bunny that. Scarcely even to herself dared she admit that the straight, free gaze of those red-brown eyes possessed the power to set her heart a-fluttering in wild rebellion like the wings of a captive bird. In many respects the change from their lodgings up the hill to the Anchor Hotel by the fishing-quay was for the better, and as the days went on and winter drew near Maud realized this.

Bunny's room had a southern aspect, and it was only on dull days that they needed a fire before evening. It possessed a French window also, which was an immense advantage; for it was perfectly easy to wheel him out on to the stone verandah outside it, and here he would lie in his own sheltered corner for hours; watching the sea and the shore and the passers-by, and sometimes talking to the very infrequent visitors who came at that season to "The Anchor.

He and Maud lived their lives apart from the rest of the establishment, an arrangement which Mrs. Sheppard deplored although she knew it to be an eminently wise one. Her husband, who never lost an opportunity to revile the girl who always treated him with the same aloof distance of manner, bitterly resented the circumstance that so limited his chances of what he styled "taking her down a peg. They did not often clash because Maud steadfastly avoided him.

And this also he resented, for he was in effect simply biding his time to drive her away. She was a perpetual thorn in his side, and he seized every chance that presented itself of inflicting some minor humiliation upon her.

His antipathy had become almost an obsession, and he never saw her without flinging some gibing taunt in her direction. And those taunts of his rankled deep. Maud's feelings towards him were of a very deadly order. If she had not avoided him, she knew that she could not have remained. But for Bunny's sake she endured his insults when contact with him became inevitable.

She could not be separated from Bunny, and she knew of no other haven. Towards Bunny, Sheppard displayed no ill feeling. He had small cause to do so, for the boy was kept rigorously out of his way, and his mother was more than willing to leave the entire care of him to Maud. In fact there were sometimes whole days on which she scarcely saw him. The change that Maud had foretold on her wedding-day had already begun in her.

She had quitted her own world without a pang, and was sunning herself in the warmth of her husband's rough devotion. As she herself expressed it, she was getting really fond of Giles, whose brutish affection for her was patent to all. Maud suppressed a shudder whenever she encountered any evidence of it, and as a result he was always noisier and coarser in his demonstrations before her face of white disgust.

What wonder that she rigidly avoided him and insisted upon taking all her meals with Bunny? In this way she avoided his loud-voiced friends also,--another frequent cause for offence! That one was Jake Bolton; and, since Bunny had so decreed it, this man came and went exactly as he chose. She never raised the smallest objection to his presence, but she certainly never welcomed him.

In fact she generally took advantage of his coming to leave Bunny for a space and it even became a recognized thing between them that she should avail herself of the leisure thus provided to run down to the shore for the brief recreation which was never obtainable in any other way.

Very often she would not return until after Jake's departure, and so on the whole, though they met so frequently, she actually saw but little of him. He was Bunny's pal, and--obedient to the inner warning--she was firmly determined that he should never become hers.

He did not seem inclined to combat this determination, but on the other hand he never relinquished by a hair's breadth the position he had taken up at the beginning of their acquaintance. It was impossible to snub him. He never heard a snub. He never advanced, and he never retreated. He simply stood firm, so that after a time her uneasiness began to die down almost in spite of her, and she even came to look upon him in a very guarded way as a friend in need.

He could do anything in the world with Bunny, and though she was half-suspicious of his influence she could not deny that he invariably exercised it in the right direction. He had even begun to implant in Bunny a wholly novel and sometimes almost disconcerting consideration for herself. Bunny was more tractable just then than he had ever been before.

It was the only bright spot in her sky. It was on an afternoon in late November that she went down to the shore during one of Jake Bolton's visits to her brother, and watched the fishing-fleet come in through a blur of rain. The beach looked dank and sodden and there were trails of mist in the air. Dusk was just beginning to fall, and it would be a wet night.

But the air blew in off the water sweet and southerly, and it did her good to breath it. She walked the length of the parade twice, and finally, as the fishing-smacks dropped one by one into the harbour on the further side of the quay, turned homewards, feeling invigorated and considerably the happier for the brief exercise.

She wondered if Jake meant to stay to tea. He did not often do so, only, on the very rare occasions when she added her invitation to Bunny's. She supposed she would have to ask him to-day if she found him still there when she returned. But she hoped she would not. She liked him best when he was not there. Regretfully she turned her back upon the heaving waters, and crossed the road to the Anchor Hotel.

It was growing rapidly dusk. She reached the entrance, and was stretching out a hand towards the swing-doors when one of them opened abruptly from within and Jake stepped out. He was smoking a cigarette, and he did not in the first moment perceive her. She drew back in an instinctive effort to escape notice.

He checked her with a gesture. It's I who want you. Can you spare me a minute? It was impossible to refuse, but she did not yield graciously. Somehow she never could be gracious to Jake Bolton. She turned back into the misty darkness with a short sigh of impatience. Later she wondered why she did not lodge a more energetic protest, for it was beginning to rain in earnest; but at the time it seemed inevitable that she should do as he desired. She re-crossed the road with him, and turned to walk to the nearest end of the parade.

They approached the spot where he had once laid peremptory hands upon her and drawn her out of danger. It was as they neared it that he suddenly spoke. Will you come into the shelter? She acquiesced. The shelter was empty. She stepped within it and stood waiting. He took out his cigarette and after a moment dropped it and set his heel upon it. You will come too, won't you? I can give you tea at my house. It's close by. Maud's eyes opened a little. The suggestion somewhat startled her, and she resented being startled.

She blushed still more hotly in the gloom, and became silent. Jake stretched out one steady finger and laid it on her arm. She drew herself away from his touch, standing very erect. This was unanswerable. She bit her lip. She felt somewhat softened in spite of herself. There was something of the superior male about him that grated on her nerves. If you will condescend to come up to my place on Sunday, I will show you a man--one of our jockeys--who was injured in just the same way that your brother is injured, and who is now as sound as I am.

He was operated upon by an American doctor called Capper--one of the biggest surgeons in the world. It was a bit of an experiment, but it succeeded. Now what has been done once can be done again. I chance to know Capper, and he is coming to London next spring. He makes a speciality of spinal trouble. Won't you let him try his hand on Bunny? There would be a certain amount of risk of course. But wouldn't it be worth it? Say, wouldn't it be worth it, to see that boy on his legs, living his life as it was meant to be lived instead of dragging out a wretched existence that hardly deserves to be called life at all?

He stopped abruptly, as if realizing that he had suffered his eagerness to carry him away. But to Maud who had begun to listen in icy aloofness that same eagerness was as the kindling of a fire in a place of utter desolation. For the moment she forgot to be cold. She came back with something of a shock to the consciousness of his personality. She drew back from the warmth that he had made her feel.

He leaned slightly towards her. Wouldn't your people scrape together something for such a purpose? She turned from him. He couldn't refuse. And--in any case--I know--I know it wouldn't be any good," she ended, with half-angry vehemence. Maud was silent. Somehow her vehemence had upset her; she had an outrageous desire to cry. Jake was silent too for a few seconds; then abruptly he squared his shoulders and spoke with aggressive decision.

With your permission--I'll see this thing through. There fell a sudden silence. Then, in an odd voice Jake said, "Bunny told me--only to-day--with pride--that there was nothing in the world that you wouldn't do for him. She made a sharp movement of protest. He looked almost formidable standing there in the twilight with his legs well apart and unabashed resolution in every line of his sturdy figure.

She faced him with a sinking sense of her own inferior strength. His self-assertion seemed to weigh her down. She felt puny and insignificant before it. As usual she sought refuge in stately aloofness. She had no other weapon, and at least it covered the beating of her heart.

I'm only tolerated for Bunny's sake. Isn't that so? You're too proud to associate with a clod like me. But for all that--though you'll never look at me--I'm not afraid to let you know that I've taken a fancy to you. You've never contemplated such a fool idea as marriage with me, I know: but you go home and contemplate it right now!

Ask yourself if you wouldn't find a husband like me less nauseating than a step-father like Giles Sheppard! Ask yourself if the little chap wouldn't stand a better chance all round if you brought him along to me! I reckon we'd make his life easier between us even if Capper couldn't make him walk. He's too heavy a burden for you to carry alone, my girl. You weren't created for such a burden as that. Let me lend a hand! I give you my solemn oath I'll be good to you both!

A tremor of passion ran through his last words, and his voice took a deeper note. Maud, upright and quivering, felt the force of the man like the blast of a tearing gale carrying all before it. She would have left him at the commencement of his speech, but he blocked the way. She stood imprisoned in a corner of the shelter, steadying herself against the woodwork, while the full strength of his individuality surged around her.

She felt physically exhausted, as though she had been trying to stand against a tremendous wind. Several seconds throbbed away ere she could trust herself to speak without faltering. Then: "Please let me pass! He stood back instantly and she was conscious of a lessening of that mysterious influence which had so overwhelmed her. She gathered her strength, and stepped forth, though she was trembling from head to foot.

Since when has a proposal of marriage constituted an insult in your estimation? He spoke with something of a drawl, but it compelled attention. She stopped, resisting the desire to shake herself free from his touch. There is another point of view to that problem.

If you had been leading a happy, sheltered life in your own sphere--that might have been a reason for me to hold off. You might with justice have scorned my offer. But--as things are--as things are--" he spoke with strong insistence.

It's a beastly position--it's a humiliating position. And I gather you've no prospect of deliverance. Well, I offer you a way of escape. It mayn't be the way you would choose, but--there are worse, many worse. I'm not a bad sort, and I've got a soft spot in my heart for that little brother of yours. Say, Miss Brian, do you despise me so badly that you can't even give the idea your impartial consideration? He spoke whimsically, but there was a rough dignity about him nevertheless which had an undeniable effect upon her.

She could no longer spurn him with contempt, though neither could she yield a single inch to his persuasion. Please understand that it is quite, quite impossible! That is to say, you'll hold it in reserve just in case a way of escape becomes essential to you. I shan't break my heart about it, but neither shall I change my mind. The offer remains open day and night just in case the emergency might arise which would make you willing to avail yourself of it. He took his hand from her arm, and she felt that the interview was over.

Yet he walked beside her as she began to move away, and crossed the road again with her to the entrance of the hotel. The colour flamed up in her face at the few, leisurely words. He seemed to possess the power of calling it up at will. She stood on the first step, looking down at him, uncertain whether to be haughty or kind. He moved close to her, and by the lamplight that streamed through the glass doors she saw his frank, disarming smile.

You never know what may turn up.

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